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Lesson 75 – الدَّرْسُ الخَامِسُ والسَّبْعونَ

The exclusion (3of3)  - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاءُ (٣مِن٣)

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • This lesson is the third part in a group of three lessons studying the exclusion. We learnt in the previous two lessons the definition of the exclusion structure, the types of exclusion, the articles of exclusion, and we covered in detail the exclusion with the most articles (/illā/ and its sisters).
  • In this lesson we will study the other exclusion articles that we did not cover in the previous two lessons, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • We remind you that the articles of exclusion are eight articles as follows:

Excluding article

Arabic

Type

English meaning

إِلَّا

/illā/

Particle

 

 

 

Except

سِوَى

/siwā/

Nouns

غَيْر

/ghayr/

حَاشا

/ħāshā/

Verbs or prepositions

عَدَا

/ξadā/

خَلا

/khalā/

لا يَكُونُ

/lā yakūnu/

Deficient verbs

لَيْسَ

/laysa/

  • In lesson 73 we covered the exclusion with /illā/, and in lesson 74 we covered the exclusion with the following five articles:

حَاشا

/ħāshā/

عَدَا

/ξadā/

خَلا

/khalā/

سِوَى

/siwā/

غَيْر

/ghayr/

Arabic

Excluding article

Verbs or prepositions

Nouns

Type

Except

English meaning

  • In this lesson we will cover the last two articles of exclusion (لَيْسَ - لا يَكُونُ) in addition to two more articles similar to the exclusion articles, which are (لاسيَّما - بَيْدَ), In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • We will learn that the exclusion articles /laysa/ and  /lā yakūnu/ are deficient verbs (we studied them in lesson 59 of /kāna/ and its sisters). In this lesson we learn /laysa/ and /lā yakūnu/ as exclusion articles. We will study the difference and the similarity between their use as exclusion articles, and their use as annuller verbs of /kāna/ and its sisters which mean “to be”.
  • We will also learn two additional articles which are (بَيْدَ/bayda/) and (لاسِيَّما/lā siyyamā/). They are very similar in the use and function to the exclusion articles.