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Lesson 74 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ والسَّبْعونَ

The exclusion (2of3) - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاءُ (٢مِن٣)

The exclusion with /khalā/, /ξadā/, and /ħāshā/ -الاستثناء بـ "خلا، عَدَا، حاشا"

  • The three exclusion articles /khalā/, /ξadā/, and /ħāshā/ have two facultative considerations as follows:

1-     They can be considered verbs of exclusion. In this case the excluded after any of them is a direct object in the accusative case.

·         Consider the following examples:




Arabic lesson image

The students came except one

حَضَرَ الطُّلاَّبُ خَلا طالِبًا

/ħađara aŧ ŧullābu khalā ŧâliban/ lesson image

The boys slept except Khalid

نامَ الأوْلادُ عَدَا خالِدًا

/nāma al awlādu ξadā khâlidan/ lesson image

I hit the students except one

ضربت َ الطُلابَ حاشا طالِبًا .

/đarabtu al awlāda ħāshā ŧâliban/

·         In the above mentioned examples the exclusion articles are verbs in the past, the doer is a latent pronoun (he), and the excluded is a direct object in the accusative case, signed with the /fatħah/ on the last letter.

2-     They can be considered prepositions. In this case the excluded after them is in the genitive case.

·         Consider the same examples (mentioned above) with the other consideration:




Arabic lesson image

The students attended except one

حَضَرَ الطُّلاَّبُ خَلا طالِبٍ

/ħađara aŧ ŧullabu khalā ŧâlibin/ lesson image

The boys slept except Khalid

نامَ الأوْلادُ عَدَا خالِدٍ

/nāma al awlādu ξadā khâlidin/ lesson image

I hit the student except one

ضربُتُ الطُلابَ حاشا طالِبٍ

/đarabtu aŧ ŧullāba ħāshā ŧâlibin/


·         Each of /ξadā/ and /khalā/ can be preceded by /mā/ (the infinitive particle). In this case they are obligatorily considered verbs, and the excluded is obligatorily a direct object in the accusative case, and the meaning remains the same as if there is no /mā/. Consider the same examples (mentioned above) with /mā/ and notice that there is no change in the meaning as follows:




The students came except one

حَضَرَ الطُّلاَّبُ ما خَلا طالِبًا

/ħađara aŧ ŧullābu mā khalā ŧâliban/

The boys slept except Khalid

نامَ الأوْلادُ ما عَدَا خالِدًا

/nāma al awlādu mā ξadā khâlidan/


·         More examples:


English meaning

Arabic example lesson image

The team arrived except the trainer

حَضَرَ الْفَرِيقُ خَلا الْمُدَرِّبَ / الْمُدَرِّبِ

/ħađara al farīqu khalā al mudarriba, al mudarribi/ lesson image

I saw all the students except tarik

رَأَيْتُ الطُّلابَ جَمِيعًا عَدَا طارِقًا / طارِقٍ

/ra’aytu aŧ ŧullāba ĵamīξan ξadā ŧâriqan-ŧâriqin/ lesson image

I ate all meats except the camel meat

أَكَلْتُ كُلَّ اللُّحومِ حاشا  لَحْمَ / لَحْمِ الْجَمَلِ

/akaltu kulla alluħūma ħāshā laħma-laħmi al ĵamali/ lesson image

I visited all the countries except Cairo

زُرْتُ كُلَّ البِلادِ ما عَدَا القاهِرَةَ

/zurtu kulla al bilādi mā ξadā al qâhirati/ lesson image

I like the animals except the  pig

أُحِبُّ الحَيَواناتِ ما خلا الْخِنْزِيرَ

/uħibbu al ħayawānāti mā khalā al khinzīra/

·         The article /ħāshā/ is rarely preceded by /mā/ (some grammarians say that it is forbidden) and it is mostly used as a preposition.

·         The article /hāshā/ is also used to show virtue, i.e. it means (far be it) as in the following example:

The students were inattentive except (far be it) Khalid

أهمل الطلابُ حاشا خالِدٍ

/ahmala aŧ ŧullābu ħāshā khâlidin/

·         You may notice that /ħāshā/ in the above mentioned example is preceded by a bad action or bad adjective, so it is used to show the virtue of the excluded because he does not do that bad action.

·         Therefore it is mistaken to say:

The students prayed except one

صَلَّى الطُّلاَّبُ حاشا طالِبًا

/ŝallā aŧ ŧullābu ħāshā ŧâliban/

  • The above mentioned example is mistaken because /ħāshā/ is preceded by a good action (the prayer), so the exclusion from this action is not a virtue.
  • More examples for /ħāshā/ that shows virtue:

English meaning

Arabic example

I (or you) cannot do it (because Allah forbids)

حاشا لِلَّهِ

/ħāshā lillāhi/

I cannot do this (I am far above doing this)

حاشانِي أن أَفْعَلَ هَذَا

/ħāshānī an afξala hādhā/

Muhammad cannot say (is far above saying) these words

حاشا مُحَمَّدًا أنْ يَقُولَ هذا الكلام

/ħāshā muħāmmadan an yaqūla hādhā al kalāma/

  • If /ħāshā/ is followed by /an/ and a verb, the implicit original noun of this structure is the doer of the verb /ħāshā/. If /ħāshā/ is not followed by such implicit original noun, the doer of /ħāshā/ is a latent pronoun.
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