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Madinah Arabic Learn Arabic Online
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Lesson 74 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ والسَّبْعونَ

The exclusion (2of3)  - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاءُ (٢مِن٣)

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • This lesson is the second part of a group of three lessons studying the exclusion. We learnt in the previous lesson the definition of the exclusion structure, the types of exclusion, its articles, and we covered in detail the exclusion with the main article (إلَّا /illā/). We also learnt the various cases of declension of the excluded after /illā/.
  • In this lesson and the following, we will study the other exclusion articles, i.e. the sisters of /illā/, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • We remind you that the articles of exclusion are as follows:

Excluding article

Arabic

Type

English meaning

إِلَّا

/illā/

Particle

 

 

 

Except

سِوَى

/siwā/

Nouns

غَيْر

/ghayr/

حَاشا

/ħāshā/

Verbs or prepositions

عَدَا

/ξadā/

خَلا

/khalā/

لا يَكُونُ

/lā yakūnu/

Deficient verbs

لَيْسَ

/laysa/

  • We have already covered /illā/ in the previous lesson. We will learn in this lesson the exclusion with the following articles:

حَاشا

/ħāshā/

عَدَا

/ξadā/

خَلا

/khalā/

سِوَى

/siwā/

غَيْر

/ghayr/

Arabic

Excluding article

Verbs or prepositions

Nouns

Type

Except

English meaning

  • In the following lesson we will cover the last two articles of exclusion ( لَيْسَ - لا يَكُونُ) in addition to two more articles similar to the exclusion articles, which are (لاسيَّما - بَيْدَ).
  • We will study (غير - سوى) in one part, and (خلاعدا - حاشا) in another part, because each group of them has general rules that can be applied for each article of the group.
  • For each article we will study the declension of the article itself and the declension of the excluded after it.
  • Before studying this lesson it is recommended to review the previous lesson, because the various cases of declension of the excluded after /illā/ will be applied in this lesson, but it will not be applied on the excluded noun, rather it will be applied on some articles as (غير - سوى), i.e. we will study that the excluded after (غير - سوى) will be an annexed genitive noun, while (غير - سوى) themselves will be declined as if they are excluded nouns after /illā/.
  •  Therefore if you review carefully the previous lesson you can understand easily the declension of the articles (غير - سوى).
  • We will also learn that the articles (خلاعدا - حاشا) can be represented as prepositions or as verbs, and this will affect the declension of the excluded noun after them, i.e. it can be genitive by the preposition or accusative as a direct object after the verb of exclusion.