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Lesson 67 – الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ و السِّتُّونَ الْمَفْعُـولُ الْمُـطْـلَـقُ

The absolute object – المَفْعُول المُطْلَق

  • In the previous lesson we learnt the direct object, which is the accusative noun which undergoes the action of the verb, e.g.:

دَخَلَ الطُّلابُ المُسَابَقَةَ

The students entered (to) the competition

  • The direct object of this sentence is the accusative noun (المُسابقةَ).
  • In this lesson we will learn another accusative noun of the verbal sentence, which is the absolute object.
  • The absolute object is an accusative original noun derived from the same rout of the verb. It is mentioned after the verb in order to confirm its meaning or to show its nature or number.
  • The absolute object is similar to the direct object in the following aspects:
    1-Each of them is a noun.
    2-Each of them is in the accusative case.
  • But they are different in the following aspects:
    1-The absolute object is always an original noun, while the direct object can be original noun, explicit noun, pronoun or implicit original noun.
  • Consider the following comparison:

Absolute object

Direct object

Meaning

Example

Meaning

Example

I have got my right thoroughly

أَخَذْتُ حَقِّي أَخْذًا شَدِيدًا

/akhadhtu ħaqqī akhdhan shadīdan/

The patient took an appointment

أَخَذَ المَرِيضُ مَوْعِدًا

/akhadha al marīđu mawξidan/

I hit him thoroughly

ضَرَبْتُهُ ضَرْبًا شَدِيدًا

/đarabtuhu đarban shadīdan/

The father hit his son

ضَرَبَ الأَبُ اِبْنَهُ

/đaraba al abu ibnahu/

I talked to the president thoroughly

كَلَّمْتُ الرَّئِيسَ تَكْلِيمًا

/kallamtu ar ra’īsa taklīman/

 

The manager talked to the employees

كَلَّمَ المُدِيرُ المُوَظَّفِينَ

/kallama al mudīru al muwađđhafīna/

I drank as the thirsty

شَرِبْتُ شُرْبَ العَطْشانِ

/sharibtu shurba al ξaŧshāni/

I drank the water

شَرِبْتُ المَاءَ

/sharibtu al mā’a/

·         In the above mentioned examples you may notice that the direct object is the noun which undergoes the action of the verb, and it can be an explicit noun (indicating someone or something). The direct object in the examples mentioned above is respectively as follows:

المَاءَ

المُوَظَّفِينَ

اِبْنَهُ

مَوْعِدًا

Arabic

The water

The employees

His son

Appointment

English

  • While the absolute object is in all the above mentioned examples an accusative original noun, which has a different function (to confirm the verb or to show its nature or number).
  • The absolute objects in the above mentioned examples are respectively as follows:

شُرْبَ

تَكْلِيمًا

ضَرْبًا

أَخْذًا

Arabic

drinking

Talking

Hitting

Taking

English

  • The types of the absolute object vary according to its function in the sentence as follows:

1-           The absolute object which confirms the meaning of the verb.

2-           The absolute object which shows the nature of the verb.

3-           The absolute object which shows the number of times in which the action happens.

  • The following examples may clarify these types:

Picture

Example

Type of the absolute object

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I ate the fish thoroughly

أَكَلْتُ السَّمَكَ أَكْلاً

/akaltu as samaka aklan/

Confirmative

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I drank the water thoroughly

شَرِبْتُ المَاءَ شُرْبًا

/sharibtu al mā’a shurban/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I broke the bottle thoroughly

كَسَرْتُ الزُّجَاجَةَ كَسْرًا

/kasartu az zuĵāĵata kasran/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I executed the plan thoroughly

نَفَّذْتُ الخُطَّةَ تَنْفِيذًا

/naffadhtu al khuŧŧata tanfīdhan/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

The boy drinks like (the drink of) animals

يَشْرِبُ الوَلَدُ شُرْبَ الحَيَوانَاتِ

/yashrabu al waladu shurba al ħayawānāti/

Showing the nature of the verb

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I became thoroughly sad

حَزِنْتُ حُزْنًا شَدِيدًا

/ħazintu huznan shadīdan/

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I slept peacefully

نِمْتُ نَومَ الْمُطْمَئِنِّينَ

/nimtu nawma al muŧma’innīna/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I love you as the thirsty loves the water

أُحِبُّكَ حُبَّ العَطْشانِ لِلْماءِ

/uħibbuka ħubba al ξaŧshāni lil mā’i/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I visited Egypt twice

زُرْتُ مِصْرَ زِيارَتَيْنِ

/zurtu miŝra marratayni/

Showing the number

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I read the book one time

قَرَأتُ الكِتابَ قِرَاءَةً واحِدَةً

/qara’tu al kitāba qirâ’atan wāħidatan/

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I played with you two games

لَعِبْتُ مَعَكَ لُعْبَتَيْنِ

/laξibtu maξaka luξbatayni/

  • From the above mentioned examples you may notice that the absolute objects are divided into three categories as follows:

1-   The confirmative absolute object:

تَنْفِيذًا

كَسْرًا

شُرْبًا

أَكْلاً

Absolute object

Execution

Breaking

Drinking

Eating

Meaning

·         Each one of these original nouns confirms the meaning of the verb.

2-   The absolute objects which show the nature of the verb:

حُبَّ العَطْشانِ

نَومَ الْمُطْمَئِنِّينَ

حُزْنًا شَدِيدًا

شُرْبَ الحَيَوانَاتِ

Absolute object

The love of the thirsty to the water

The sleep of the peaceful people

Extreme sadness

The drinking of animals

Meaning

  • This type of absolute object is followed normally by an adjective or an annexed noun.

3-   The absolute objects which show the number of times the action happens:

لُعْبَتَيْنِ

قِرَاءَةً

زِيارَتَيْنِ

Absolute object

Two games

One reading

Two visits

Meaning

 This kind shows how many times the verb happens, once, twice, etc.