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Lesson 66 – الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ والسِّتُّونَ

The direct object - الْمَـفْـعُـول بِـه

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson we return to the active voice sentence to study the direct object. The direct object is a dispensable (optional) part of the verbal sentence. We studied the two indispensable parts of the verbal sentence in many lessons as follows:
    a- The active verbal sentence:
       1- We learnt the active verb in lessons (28 to 40).
       2-And we studied the doer (the agent) in lesson 64.
    b- The passive verbal sentence:
       1-We learnt the passive form of the verb in lesson 34.
       2-And we learnt the pro agent in lesson 65.
  • From this lesson we will start studying the dispensable parts of the verbal sentence.
  • The dispensable parts of the verbal sentence are called the objects (المفاعيل /al mafāξīl/). All the objects are originally in the accusative case.
  • The direct object is the first one of the objects that we will study In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • In this lesson we will learn the following:
    - What the direct object is, what the types of the direct object are. We will study that it can be (mostly) one of two types as follows:

Picture

Type of the direct object

Direct object

Example

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Explicit noun

الحِسابَ

Khalid paid the bill

دَفَعَ خَالِدٌ الحِسابَ

/dafaξa khâlidun al ħisāba/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Pronoun

ـي

The teacher helps me

سَاعَدَنِي الأُسْتَاذُ

/sāξadany al ustādhu/

  • We will also learn the original order of the verbal sentence as follows:

الفِعْل + الفاعِل + المفْعول

The verb + the agent + the direct object

  • We will also study the cases in which the order of the sentence is changed as follows:

Picture

The direct object

The agent

Example

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image 

البَيْتَ

صَاحِبُ

Visited the house, his owner

زارَ البَيْتَ صَاحِبُهُ

/zāra al bayta ŝâħibuhu/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

إِيَّاكَ

النَّاسُ

It is you, the people hope

إيَّاكَ يَرْجُو النَّاسُ

/iyyāka yarĵu an nāsu/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

أَيَّ

أَنْتَ

Which book do you want

أَيَّ كِتابٍ تُرِيدُ؟

/ayya kitābin turīdu/

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مَنْ

أَنْتَ

Whoever  you help succeeds

مَنْ تُسَاعِد يَنْجَحْ

/man tusāξidu yanĵaħu/

  • We will also learn the situations in which we omit the direct object. This omission must be under a condition that the meaning of the direct object is understandable from the context.
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