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Lesson 63 – الدَّرْسُ الثّالِثُ والسِّتُّونَ

Transitive verbs over two objects/đhanna/ and its sisters - الأفعال التي تَنْصِب مَفْعُولَيْنِ "ظَــنَّ، وَأَخَوَاتُـها"

/đhanna/ and its sistersظَـنَّ وَأَخَوَاتُـها

  • In this lesson we will learn new types of Arabic verbs that are related to the nominal sentence rather than to the verbal sentence, hence  we study them in this lesson and not in the verbal sentence lessons.
  • These verbs are only used in the nominal sentence جملة اسمية /ĵumlah ismiyyah/ consisting of a subject + a predicate مُبْتَدَأ وَخَبَر /mubtada' and  khabar/ to change it into a verbal sentence consisting of: verb (فعل) + doer (فاعل) + first object (مفعول به١) + second object (مفعول به٢) This means that the nominal sentence will change into a verbal sentence.
  • These verbs are called ‘dia-transitive’ in grammar, i.e. there are two objects in the sentence (first object and second object), which were a subject and a predicate before the sentence changes into a verbal sentence.
  • So ظَـنَّ وَأَخَواتُها (đhanna and its sisters) are used in a nominal sentence (consisting of a subject and a predicate) to change it to a verbal sentence, with the subject changing into the first object and the predicate into the second object.
  • Here are examples indicating how these verbs change a nominal sentence (a subject + a predicate) to a verbal sentence [verb + doer + first object (the subject of the nominal sentence) + second object (the predicate of the nominal sentence)]:

Translation

Verbal sentence (đhanna or one of its sisters + 1st object + 2nd object)

Nominal sentence (subject + predicate)

Verbs of đhanna and its sisters

English

Arabic

I knew that the student was diligent

عَلِمْتُ الطَّالِبَ مُجْتَهِدًا

/ξalimtu aŧ ŧâliba muĵtahidan/

الطَّالِبُ مُجْتَهِدٌ

/aŧ ŧâlibu muĵtahidun/

 

to know

 

عَلِمَ

/ξalima/

 

 

I saw the sun shining

رَأَيْتُ الشمْسَ مُشْرِقَةً

/ra’aytu ash shamsa mushriqatan/

الشمْسُ مُشْرِقَةٌ

/ash shamsu mushriqatun/

to see

رَأَى

/ra’ā/

 

I found the room vacant

وَجَدتُ الحُجْرَةَ خَالِيَةً

/waĵadtu al ħuĵrata khâliyatan/

الحُجْرَةُ خَالِيَةٌ

/al ħuĵratu khâliyatun/

to find

وَجَدَ

/waĵada/

 

I found love is beautiful

أَلْفَيْتُ الحُبَّ جَمِيلاً

/alfaytu al ħubba ĵamīlan/

الحُبُّ جَمِيلٌ

/al ħubbu ĵamīlun/

to find

أَلْفَى

/alqâ/

 

I was informed that the news was true

دَرَيْتُ الخَبَرَ صَحِيحًا

/daraytu al khabara ŝaħīħan/

الخَبَرُ صَحِيحٌ

/al khabaru ŝaħīhun/

to be or become informed of or about

دَرَى

/darâ/

 

The teacher thought the student is active

خَالَ الأُسْتَاذُ الطَّالِبَ نَشِيطًا

/khâla al ustādhu aŧ ŧâliba nashīŧan/

الطَّالِبُ نَشِيطٌ

/aŧ ŧâlibu nashīŧun/

to think, believe, assume

خَالَ

/khâla/

 

I thought Arabic is easy

ظَنَنْتُ العَرَبِيَّةً سَهْلَةً

/đhanantu al ξarabiyyata sahlatan/

العَرَبِيَّةُ سَهْلَةٌ

/al ξarabiyyatu sahlatun/

to think

ظَنَّ

/đhanna/

 

I supposed the friend was faithful

حَسِبْتُ الصَّدِيقَ وَفِيًّا

/ħasibtu aŝ ŝadīqa wafiyyan/

الصَّدِيقُ وَفِيٌّ

/aŝ ŝadīqu wafiyyun/

to consider, think, suppose, assume

حَسِبَ

/ħasiba/

 

The student claimed grammar is easy

زَعَمَ الطالبُ النّحْوَ سَهْلاً

/zaξama aŧ ŧâlibu an naħwa sahlan/

النَحْوُ سَهْلٌ

/an naħwu sahlaun/

to claim, allege

زَعَمَ

/zaξama/

 

My friend considered my neighbor is a partner in the project

عَـدَّ صاحبي جَارَنَا شَرِيكًا فِي المَشْرُوعِ

/ξadda ŝâħibī ĵāranā sharīkan fī al mashrūξi/

جَارُنَا شَرِيكٌ فِي المَشْرُوعِ

/ĵārunā sharīkun fī al mashrūξi/

to consider, count, deem, regard as

عَـدَّ

/ξadda/

 

The student took the book as (i.e. considered it to be) a guide to knowledge

اِتَّخَذَ الطَّالِبُ الكِتَابَ دَلِيلاً

/ittakhadha aŧ ŧâlibu al kitāba dalīlan/

الكِتَابُ دَلِيلٌ لِلْمَعْرِفَةِ

/al kitābu dalīlun lil maξrifati/

to take, assume, take on

اِتَّخَذَ

/ittakhadha/

 

The school made the youth polite

جَعَلَتِ المَدْرَسَةُ الشَّبَابَ مُؤَدَّبِينَ

/ĵaξalat al madrasatu ash shabāba mu’addabīna/

الشَّبَابُ مُؤَدَّبُونَ

/ash shabābu mu’addabūna/

to make, cause to be or become

جَعَلَ

/ĵaξala/

 

 

I left the children happy

تَرَكْتُ الأَطْفَالَ سُعَدَاءَ

/taraktu al aŧfāla suξadā’a/

الأَطْفَالُ سُعَدَاءُ

/al aŧfālu suξadā’u/

to leave

تَرَكَ

/taraka/

 

Knowledge turns the student into a teacher

صَيَّرَ العِلْمُ الطَّالِبَ أُسْتَاذًا

/ŝayyara al ξilmu aŧ ŧâliba ustādhan/

الطَّالِبُ أُسْتَاذٌ

/aŧ ŧâlibu ustādhun/

to turn into, make into, cause to be or become

صَيَّرَ

/ŝayyara/