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Lesson 62 – الدَّرْسُ الثّانِي و السِّتُّونَ كَادَ وَأخَوَاتُها

Verbs of hope – (أَفْعَـالُ الرَّجَـاءِ: عَسَى، حَرَى، اِخْلَوْلَقَ)

  • This is the second group of the annuller verbs /kāda/ and its sisters. They mean that action which is in the verbal predicate sentence is hoped by the speaker, i.e. the speaker hopes that the subject makes that action. E.g.

عَسَى الطَّالِبُ أَنْ يَنْجَحَ فِي الامْتِحَان

/ξasā aŧ ŧâlibu an yanĵaħa fī al imtiħāni/

(it is hoped) I hope that the student succeed in the exam

  • In the above mentioned example the verb (عَسَى/ξasā/) means that we hope that the student succeeds.
  • In this group there are three verbs that have the same meaning and function, as it is shown in the following examples:

Picture

Example

Annuller verb

English

Arabic

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It is hoped that the problem be resolved

عَسَى الْمُشْكِلَةُ تُحَلُّ

/ξasā al mushkilatu tuħallu/

عَسَى

/ξasā/

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It is hoped that Allah guides unjust people

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَهْدِيَ الظَّالِمِينَ

/ξasā Allâhu an yahdiya ađđhâlimīna/

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It is hoped that the doctor cures the patients

حَرَى الطَّبِيبُ أَنْ يُعَالِجَ المَرْضَى

/ħarâ aŧ ŧabību an yuξāliĵa al marđâ/

حَرَى

/ħarâ/

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It is hoped that the worker be paid (takes his fee)

حَرَى العَامِلُ أَنْ يأْخُذَ أَجْرَهُ

/ħarâ al ξāmilu an ya’khudha aĵrahu/

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It is hoped that the weather be better

اِخْلَوْلَقَ الْجَوُّ أَنْ يَعْتَدِلَ

/ikhlawlaqa al ĵawwu an yaξtadila/

اِخْلَوْلَقَ

/ikhlawlaqa/

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It is hoped that peace spread on the earth

اِخْلَوْلَقَ السَّلامُ أَنْ يَنْتَشِرَ فِي الأَرِضِ

/ikhlawlaqa as salāmu an yantashira fī al arđi/

  • In the above mentioned examples you may notice the following:
    -All the three annuller verbs of this second group mean (it is hoped that, or I hope that).
    -The first verb (
    عَسَى /ξasā/) can be used with or without the particle (أنْ /an/), which precedes the predicate verb and makes it in the accusative case. In the first example there is no (أنْ /an/), and in the second example there is. Please see the tow examples hereunder and compare.
  • The two other verbs of this group of annuller verbs are only used with the particle (أنْ /an/), so the predicate verb is in accusative case, i.e. is signed originally with fatħah on its last letter as follows:

  • It also noticeable that the three verbs of this group are used only in the past tense. They are never used in present or imperative.
  • Nb.: The verbs (حَرَى /ħarâ/) and (اِخْلَوْلَقَ /ikhlawlaqa/) are rarely used in modern standard Arabic, and they are not commonly used in ancient texts.