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Lesson 62 – الدَّرْسُ الثّانِي و السِّتُّونَ كَادَ وَأخَوَاتُها

Verbs of approximation /afξāl al muqârabah/– (أفْعال الْمُقارَبَة: كَاد، كَرُبَ، أَوْشَكَ)

  • The annuller verbs /kāda/ and its sisters (كادَ وأخَوَاتُها) are divided into three groups. We will study in this part the first group In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • The verbs in this first group are called Verbs of approximation (أفْعال الْمُقارَبَة /afξāl al muqârabah/). These verbs add to the nominal sentence a meaning that the subject is just about to do the action of the verbal predicate sentence.
  • Note that the approximation verbs are three (كَادَ /kāda/), (كَربَ /karaba/), and (أوْشَكَ /awshaka/). All of them have nearly the same meaning.
  • Note also that the verb in the predicate sentence is always in the present tense, even if it expresses a past tense.
    Study the following examples:

Picture

Example

Verb

English

Arabic

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The car was about to hit me

كَادَتِ السَّيَّارَةُ تَصْدِمُنِي

/kādat as sayyāratu taŝdimuny/

كَادَ

/kāda/

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My tears was about to fall

كَادَت دُمُوعِي تَسْقُطُ

/kādat dumūξī tasquŧu/

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The patient starts to heal (restore)

كَرَبَ المَرِيضُ يُشْفَى

/karaba al marīđu yushfā/

كَرَبَ

/karaba/

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The situation starts to be fixed

كَرَبَ الحَالُ يَنْصَلِحُ

/karaba al ħālu yanŝaliħu/

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The rain is about to fall

أَوشَكَ المَطَرُ يَسْقُطُ

/awshaka al maŧaru yasquŧu/

أَوْشَكَ

/awshaka/

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The summer is about to finish

أَوْشَكَ الصَّيْفُ يَنْتَهِي

/awshaka aŝ ŝayfu yantahī/

  • As you may notice in all the above mentioned examples, the subject has not made the action of the predicate yet, instead he is just about to do it within a very few time.
  • The predicate in all the examples is a verbal sentence which contains a present verb. We remind you that the present verb is originally in nominative case, and it is originally signed with /đammah/ on its last letter.
  • There is another way to express the same meanings of the above mentioned examples, using the verb of the predicate in accusative case preceded by (أَنْ /an/) the accusative particle meaning (that). See the same examples again with (أَنْ /an/):

Example

Verb

English

Arabic

The car was about to hit me

كَادَتِ السَّيَّارَةُ أنْ تَصْدِمَنِي

/kādat as sayyāratu an taŝdimany/

كَادَ

/kāda/

My tears was about to fall

كَادَت دُمُوعِي أنْ تَسْقُطَ

/kādat dumūξī an tasquŧa/

The patient starts to heal (restore)

كَرَبَ المَرِيضُ أنْ يُشْفَى

/karaba al marīđu an yushfā/

كَرَبَ

/karaba/

The situation starts to be fixed

كَرَبَ الحَالُ أنْ يَنْصَلِحَ

/karaba al ħālu yanŝaliħa/

The rain is about to fall

أَوشَكَ المَطَرُ أنْ يَسْقُطَ

/awshaka al maŧaru an yasquŧa/

أَوْشَكَ

/awshaka/

The summer is about to finish

أَوْشَكَ الصَّيْفُ أنْ يَنْتَهِيَ

/awshaka aŝ ŝayfu an yantahiya/

  • You may notice that the verbs of the predicate in this table are accusative, i.e. signed originally with /fatħah/ on their last letters, because of the particle (أَنْ /an/). The same verbs in the first table are in the nominative case, i.e. they are signed originally with /đammah/, and the meaning is nearly the same.
  • The annuller verb (كَربَ /karaba/) can only be in the past verb, while the other two annuller verbs (كَادَ /kāda/), and (أوْشَكَ /awshaka/) can be in the past or in the present tense (يَكادُ /yakādu/) and (يوشِكُ /yushiku/). As follows:

Example

Verb

English

Arabic

The house is about to fall down

يَكَادُ البَيْتُ أَنْ يَسْقُطَ

/yakādu al baytu an yasquŧa/

يَكَادُ

/yakādu/

The train is about to arrive.

يُوشِكُ القِطارُ أنْ يَصِلَ

/yūshiku al qiŧâru an yaŝila/

يُوشِكُ

/yūshiku/

  • Nb.: The verb (كَربَ /karaba/) is rarely used in modern standard Arabic, and it is also not commonly used in ancient texts.