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Lesson 60 – الدَّرْسُ السِّتُّونَ

Annuller particles (/inna/ and its sisters)- الحـُرُوفُ النَّاسِخَـةُ (إنَّ وأَخواتُها)

The annuller particles /inna/ and its sistersالْحُـرُوف النَّاسِخَةُ "إنَّ وَأَخَـواتُـها"

  • In this lesson we will study the annuller particles (الحُرُوف النَّاسخة) /inna/ and its sisters In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • These particles intervene only in the nominal sentence.  Each of the particles of /inna/ and its sisters adds  a new meaning to the nominal sentence, and  changes its declension as follows:

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Example

Meaning

Particle

English

Arabic

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Indeed, the ocean is bigger than the sea

إنَّ المُحِيطَ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ البَحْرِ

/inna al muħīŧa akbaru min al baħri/

Indeed (confirmation particle)

إنَّ

/inna/

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I hope that Muhammad is happy

أّتَمَنَّى أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا سَعِيدٌ

/atamannā anna muħammadan saξīdun/

That (phrasal particle)

أَنَّ

/anna/

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As if Aba Bakr is a professor

كَأَنَّ أبا بكرٍ أُسْتاذٌ

/ka’anna abā bakrin ustādhun/

As if (similitude particle)

كَأَنَّ

/ka’anna/

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But Aba Bakr is a student

لَكِنَّ أَبا بَكْرٍ طَالِبٌ

/lākinna abā bakrin ŧâlibun/

But (restriction particle)

 

لَكِنَّ

/lākinna/

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If only the students are hardworking

لَيْتَ الطُّلابَ مُجْتَهِدُونَ

/layta aŧ ŧullāba muğtahidūna/

If only (wishing particle)

لَيْتَ

/layta/

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The students may succeed

لَعَلَّ الطُّلاَّبَ يَنْجَحُونَ

/laξalla aŧ ŧullāba yanğaħūna/

May be (wish)

لَعَلَّ

/laξalla/

  • From the above mentioned table we notice the following:
    -
    The annuller particles /inna/ and its sisters are six particles (إنَّأَنَّ - كَأَنَّلَكِنَّلَيْتَ - لَعَلَّ).
    - Each one of these six particles add a new meaning to the nominal sentence as follows:
    1- (
    إنَّ /inna/) is a confirmation particle as shown above. You may notice the difference between the confirmed and the non-confirmed sentence as follows:

Picture

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

The ocean is bigger than the sea

المُحِيطُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ البَحْرِ

Indeed, the ocean is bigger than the sea

إنَّ المُحِيطَ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ البَحْرِ

  •  The second sentence is confirmed (assured).
  •  (إنَّ /inna/) can also be used as a phrasal particle meaning (that) it comes after the verb (قال /qâla) as follows:

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English

Arabic

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Our reporter in Iraq says that the situation is very dangerous

يَقُولُ مُرَاسِلُنا فِي العِرَاقِ إنَّ الْوَضْعَ خَطِيرٌ جِدًا

 2-(أنَّ /anna/) is only used as a phrasal particle, i.e. it always means (that), but it is not used with (قال /qâla/), instead it is used with many other verbs as follows:

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English

Arabic

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Do you know that Asia is bigger than Africa?

هَلْ تَعْرِفُ أنَّ آسيا أكْبَر مِنْ أفْريقيا؟

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The newspapers mentioned that the price of petrol is increasing.

ذَكَرَت الصُّحُفُ أنَّ أسْعارَ البترول مرْتَفِعة

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The President announced that he will visit Egypt.

أعْلَنَ الرَّئيسُ أنَّه سيَزورُ مِصرَ

  • We now clearly understand that (أنَّ /anna/) cannot be placed in the beginning of the sentence. It has to be preceded by a verb. (إنَّ /inna/) can make the same function of (أنَّ /anna/) if it is preceded with the verb (قال /qâla/).  However, if (إنَّ /inna/) is in the beginning of the sentence it means (indeed).

3- (كَأَنَّ /ka’anna) means (as if). It adds the meaning of similitude to the sentence. Consider and compare the following two sentences:

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English

Arabic

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Abu Bakr is a teacher

أبو بكرٍ أُسْتاذٌ

As if Aba Bakr is a teacher

كَأَنَّ أبا بكرٍ أُسْتاذٌ

4- As for the particle “لَكِنَّ – but”, it has the meaning of “Retract”. It means that you mention an information and then you mention afterwards another one against it or opponent to it, as for example:

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Sentence

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

English

Arabic

This is a hardworking family, but the son is too lazy.

هَذِهِ أُسْرَةٌ مُجْتَهدَةٌ، لَكِنَّ الاِبْنَ كَسْلانُ

The original information here is that the family is hardworking, while the other retracting information came after the particle “لَكِنَّ - but” to add the meaning of retract, as if you retract your first information regarding the son, as he is one of the family which you described with hardworking, because he is not like the rest of the family. He is too lazy.
 Here is another example:

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Sentence

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

English

Arabic

Everyone accepted, but I didn’t.

وافقَ الجمِيعُ لَكِنَّني غيرُ موافِقٍ

5- (لَيْتَ /layta/) is a particle of wishing. It is used for something that you wish for but you know will never happen. See the following examples:

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English

Arabic

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Youthfulness never come back

الشَّباب لا يعودُ

If only Youthfulness comes back

لَيْتَ الشَّباب يعودُ

6- (لَعَلَّ /laξalla/) also means wish or hope, but, unlike /layta/, it is used for a wish that you think is expected  to happen, as in the following examples:

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English

Arabic

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The students succeed

الطُّلاَّبُ يَنْجَحُونَ

I hope that the students succeed

لعَلَّ الطُّلاَّبَ يَنْجَحُونَ