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Lesson 58 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّامِنُ وَالْخَمْسُونَ

The nominal sentence  - الجُمْلَةُ الاِسْمِيَّةُ

types of subjectأَنْوَاعُ المُبْتَدَأ

  • In the previous part of this lesson we learnt the nominal sentence, and we understood that it consists of two essential parts which are the subject (المُبْتَدأ /al mubtada’/) and the predicate (الخَبَر /al khabar/).
  • The main part of the nominal sentence – the /mubtada’/ (subject), can be divided into many types because it is a noun, and we have already learnt that the noun is divided into many types. You will notice from the following examples that most types of nouns can be used as the subject – e.g. pronouns, animals, humans, inanimate (non-living) objects etc:


Type of the subject


Arabic example lesson image

A name of a person


Ahmed is kind

أَحْمَدُ طَيِّبٌ

/aħmadu ŧayyibun/ lesson image

A noun referring to  somebody (non specific)

اسْم عَاقِل

The man is generous

الرَّجُلُ كَرِيمٌ

/ar raĵulu karīmun/ lesson image

A name of something

اسْم شَيْء

The sun is shining

الشَّمْسُ  سَاطِعَةٌ

/ash shamsu sāŧiξatun/ lesson image

A name of an animal

اسْم حَيَوان

The horse is strong

الحِصانُ قَوِيٌّ

/al ħiŝânu qawiyyun/ lesson image

Original noun


The justice is beloved

العَدْلُ مَحْبُوبٌ

/al ξadlu maħbūbun/ lesson image

Original noun


The injustice is disliked

الظُّلْمُ مَكْرُوهٌ

/ađh đhulmu makrūhun/ lesson image



You are a student

أَنْتَ طَالِبٌ

/anta ŧâlibun/ lesson image



I am a teacher

أَنَا مُدَرِّسٌ

/anā mudarrisun/ lesson image


اِسْم إشارة

Those are doctors

هَؤُلاءِ  أَطِبَّاء

/hā’ulā’i aŧibbā’u/ lesson image

Questioning noun

اِسْم اِسْتِفهام

Who is this?

مَنْ هَذَا ؟

/man hādhā/ lesson image

Questioning noun

اِسْم اِسْتِفْهَام

What is this?

مَا  هَذَا ؟

/mā hādhā/ lesson image

Questioning noun

اِسْم اِسْتِفْهَام

Where are you?

أَيْنَ أَنْتُم ؟

/ayna antum/

  • You may notice, that the above mentioned sentences are all nominal sentences, because  each of them consists of a subject (المُبْتَدأ /al mubtada’/), and a predicate (الخَبَر /al khabar/).
  • The subject in these sentences is in various types:
    In the first sentence it is a name of a person (أحمد).
    -In the following three sentences it is a substantive (evident) noun (
    الرَّجُلُالشَمْسُ - الحِصَانُ), all these nouns are declinable in a nominative case, signed with /đammah/ on the last letter because this is the original declension of the subject, as we see later in this lesson.

·         In sentences 5 and 6 the subject is an original noun (مَصْدَر /maŝdar/). You may know that the /maŝdar/ is a normal noun that is derived from a verb. In the case of these sentences, the words (العَدْلُ - الظُّلْمُ) are two nouns derived from the verbs (عَدَلَ - ظَلَمَ).

·          In the sentences 7 and 8, the subject is a pronoun (أَنْتَ - أَنَا). We learnt in earlier lessons that all pronouns are indeclinable, so there is no sign of the declension of the subject (đammah) on the last letter of the above mentioned pronouns.  An indeclinable noun never changes irrespective of its grammatical case.

·          In the sentence number 9 the subject is a demonstrative noun (هَؤُلاءِ). This is also an indeclinable noun, as we studied in earlier lessons, it is always signed with /kasrah/ on its last letter, so the original sign of the declension of the subject does not appear on its last letter.

·          Finally, in the sentences 10, 11, and 12 the subject is a questioning (interrogative) noun (مَنْ -  مَا  - أَيْنَ). As we learnt in earlier lessons all questioning nouns are indeclinable, so they cannot be signed with the original sign of the subject (đammah) on their last letters, because the indeclinable noun never changes in the different cases (positions in the sentence).