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Lesson 52 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّاني وَالْخَمْسُونَ

The manqūŝ Noun  الاسـم المَنْقُوص

Omission of the Manqūŝ's Long yā' - حَذْفُ ياءِ المَنْقُوصِ وَبَقاؤُها

  • Sometimes the long yā' of the manqūŝ noun is omitted. The long yā' at the end of the manqūŝ noun is a long vowel preceded by a kasrah. The long yā' is also a defective (or week) letter حَرْف عِلّة /ħarf ξillah/ and so it may be omitted in certain cases.

    Conditions of maintaining the yā' in the
    manqūŝ noun:
  • The manqūŝ noun is prefixed by the definite letters ال /al-/: such as الدَّاعِي /al-dāξī/, القَاضِي /al-qâđī/, الغَالِي /al-ghâlī/ and النادِي /al-nādī/ in the following examples:

Transliteration

Translation

Example

/al-dāξī/

The one who calls for good is like the one who does it

الدَّاعِي إلى الخَيرِ كَفَاعِلِهِ

/al-qâđī/

The judge sentenced the murderer to death

حَكَمَ القَاضِي على القاتِلِ بالإعْدَامِ شَنْقاً

/al-ghâlī/

An expensive thing is of high quality

الشَّيْءُ الغَالِي جَوْدَتُهُ عَالِيَةٌ

/al-nādī/

I'm a member in this sports club

أنا عُضْوٌ فِي هذا النادِي

Picture

Transliteration

Translation

Example

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

/bānī/

The builder of the house is a highly experience engineer

بانِي البَيْتِ مُهَنْدِسٌ ذُو خِبْرَةٍ كَبِيرَةٍ

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/ħāmī/

The father is the leader and guardian of the family

الأَبُ هو قائِدُ الأُسْرَةِ وحَامِيها

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/qâdī/

The city's judge attended the city's festival

حَضَرَ قَاضِي المَدِينَةِ الاحْتِفالَ بِعِيد المَدِينَة

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/ghâlī/

This garment is expensive

هَذا الثَّوْبُ غَالِي الثَّمَنِ

  • The long yā' is not omitted from all the above manqūŝ nouns because they are all مُضاف (annexing) and the following nouns are مُضاف إليه /muđâf ilayh/ (the noun comes after an annexing noun and they are inseparable)
  • The manqūŝ noun is in the accusative case, with the fathah (ــَ) as its diacritical sign, such as

Transliteration

Translation

Example

/qâđi-ya/

I saw the city's judge

رَأَيْتُ قَاضِيَ المَدِينَةِ

/bāni-ya/

I shook hand with the house's builder

صَافَحْتُ بَانِيَ البَيْتِ

  • In this case (Nasb, with case-ending Fathah "ـَ" /-a/) the long yā' remains in the Manqūŝ Noun even in the absence of the first two conditions: being prefixed by ال or being annexed to the next noun. Study the following examples:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

I want to work as judge

urīd-u an aξmal-a đi- ian

أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ قَاضِياً

I saw a cruel man today

ra'ayt-u al-yawm-a raĵul-an qâsi-ian

رَأَيْتُ اليَوْمَ رَجُلاً قَاسِياً

I bought today an expensive garment

ishtaryt-u al-yawm-a thawb-an ghâli-ian

اِشْتَرَيْتُ اليَوْمَ ثَوْباً غَالِياً

  • Note: the Manqūŝ nouns in the above examples end with a tanwīn Fathah (ـً) /-an/ because they are نَكِرَة /nakirah/ (indefinite) and not مُضَاف /muđâf/ (annexing).
  • Cases of omitting the yā' of the Manqūŝ Noun:
  • The cases of omitting the yā' of the Manqūŝ Noun are the opposite of the cases of keeping it:
    1-
    Not including definite ال /-al/
    2-Not annexing noun
    مُضاف
    3-Not in the accusative case [Nasb
    نَصْب case with fatħah "ـَ"
  • All of the above three conditions are a must to omit the long yā' of the Manqūŝ Noun. Study the following examples:

Translation

Example

Declension sign

Declension case

Noun

You always make efforts in good

أَنْتَ ساعٍ إلى الخَيْرِ دائِماً

الضمة المقدرة على الياء المحذوفة

The virtual đammah on the omitted yā’

   مرفوع

Nominative

ساعٍ

/sāξin/

What an expensive garment

يا لَهُ مِنْ ثَوْبٍ غالٍ

الكسرة المقدرة على الياء المحذوفة

The virtual  kasrah on the omitted yā’

  مجرور

Genitive

غِالٍ

/ghâlin/

What a tall house

يا له مِنْ بَيْتٍ عَالٍ

الكسرة المقدرة على الياء المحذوفة

The virtual kasrah on the omitted yā’

  مجرور

Genitive

عَالٍ

/ξālin/

Many nights have passed while we are afraid

مَرَّتْ عَلَيْنَا لَيَالٍ طِوالٌ وَنَحْنُ خَائِفُون

الضمة المقدرة على الياء المحذوفة

The virtual đammah on the omitted yā’

   مرفوع

Nominative

لَيَالٍ

/layālin/

Good remains and evils vanishes

الخَيْرُ بَاقٍ، والشَّرُّ زَائِلٌ

الضمة المقدرة على الياء المحذوفة

The virtual đammah on the omitted yā’

   مرفوع

Nominative

بَاقٍ

/bāqin/