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Lesson 32الدَّرْسُ الثَّانِي وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Sound Verb and Defective Verb – الفِعْلُ الصَّحِيحُ والمُعْتَلُّ

Sound and Defective Verbs

  • In Part (1) of Lesson 13 (Maqŝuur, Manquuŝ and Mamduud Nouns), we learnt that there are three weak letters in Arabic, called DEFECTIVE LETTERS أَحْرُفُ الْعِلَّةِ, i.e. (ا، و، ي). Accordingly, the verb in Arabic is divided into two categories: sound and defective.
  • A sound verb is that which does not contain a defective letter among its radical letters. For example:

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Verb

Meaning

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اسْتَخْرَجَ

istakhraĵa

Extract

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انْكَسَرَ

Inkasara

Break

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تَعَلَّمَ

taξallama

Learn

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دَرَسَ

darasa

Study

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كَتَبَ

kataba

Write

  • A defective verb is that which includes one of the three defective letters (ا، و، ي) whether in the initial, medial or final position of the verb. For example:

مَكَانُ الْحَرْفِ

Place of the defective letter

حَرْفُ الْعِلَّةِ

Defective letter

الْمَعْنَى

Meaning

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

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Initial position

و

to promise

وَعَدَ

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Medial position

و

to say

يَقُولُ

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Final position

و

to invite / pray

يَدْعُو

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Initial position

ي

Dried

يَبَسَ

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Medial position

ي

to sell

يَبِيعُ

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Final position

ي

to run

يَجْرِي

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Medial position

ا

Said

قَالَ

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Final position

ا

Ran

جَرَى

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