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Lesson 27 – الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ الاسْمُ الْمَقْصُورُ والْمَنْقُوصُ والْمَمْدُودُ

The manqūŝ noun - الاسم المنقوص

  • The declinable noun (اسْم مُعْرَبٌ) ending with the letter (ي) "yā’" /-ī/ preceded by a short kasrah is called (اسْمٌ مَنْقُوصٌ) "manqūŝ noun". That is, it is a noun ending with a long yā’ /-ī/ preceded by a short kasrah, such as sāξī (سَاعِي), qâđī (قَاضِي), ghâlī (غَالِي), etc.  These are the same conditions that we described above in section 2 relating to the Maqŝūr noun.
  • The diacritical signs of declension only appear when the manqūŝ noun is in the accusative case. For example:

Sentence

Transliteration

Translation

رأَيْتُ قاضِيَ المَدِينَةِ

ra’ytu qâđī-a al-madīnah

I saw the judge of the city

  • If the manqūŝ noun is in the nominative or genitive cases, the diacritical signs (đammah in the nominative and kasrah in the genitive cases) do not appear. For example:

Sentence

Transliteration

Translation

Declension الإِعْرَابُ

جَاءَ قَاضِي الْمَدِينةِ

ĵā’a qâđī al-madīnah

The judge of the city came.

مَرْفُوعٌ

Nominative

هَذَا بَيْتُ الْقَاضِي

hādhā baytu al-qâđī

 

This is the judge's house.

مَجْرُورٌ

Genitive

  • The letter (ي) "yā’" /-ī/ is always omitted in the manqūŝ noun except in the following three cases:

1-   When it is preceded by definite article (ال) "al-":

جَاءَ الْقَاضِي

ĵā’a al-qâđī

The judge came.

2-   When it is (مُضَافٌ) "muđâf" (annexed) (the first part of a construct phrase:

جَاءَ قَاضِي الْمَدِينةِ

ĵā’a qâđī al-madīnah

The judge of the city came.

 

3-   When it comes in the accusative case with the diacritical sign of short fatћah:

رَأَيْتُ قَاضِيًا

Ra’aytu qâđiya-n

I saw a judge.

  • In cases other than the three mentioned above, the (ي) "yā’" of the manqūŝ noun is omitted, and it is written with tanwīn (an un-voweled nūn at the end of a noun). For example:

 

مَرْفُوعٌ

Nominative

مَنْصُوبٌ

Accusative

مَجْرُورٌ

Genitive

Definite, prefixed with (ال)

هَذَا الْقَاضِي

hādhā al-qâđī

This is the judge.

زَارَ أَبِي النَّادِيَ

zara abī al-nādī

My father visited the club.

هَذَا بَيْتُ الْقَاضِي

hādhā baytu al-qâđī

This is the judge's home.

Annexed (muđâf)

Not prefixed with (ال)

هَذَا قَاضِي الْمَدِينَةِ

hādhā qâđī al-madīnah

This is the city's judge.

أَنَا أُحِبُّ نَادِيَ الشَّمْسِ

ana uћibbu nādiya al-shams

I love al-Shams Club.

مَرَرْتُ بِنَادِي الصَّيْدِ

marartu bi-nādī aŝ-ŝaydi

I passed by the Shooting Club.

Indefinite, without (ال), and not annexed

هَذَا قَاضٍ

hādhā qâđi-n

This is a judge.

رَأى أَخِي نَادِيًا كَبِيرًا

ra’a akhī nadiya-n kabīra-n

My brother saw a big club.

مَرَرْتُ بِنادٍ كَبِيرٍ

marartu binādi-n kabīri-n

I passed by a big club.

  • In column 1 (examples on the nominative), the đammah does not appear on the word (الْقَاضِي) "al qâđī" (the judge) in the first sentence, but we write the letter (ي) "yā’" because the manqūŝ noun is prefixed with the definite (ال) "al-".
  • In the second sentence of this column: (هَذَا قَاضِي الْمَدِينَةِ) the đammah does not appear on the word (قَاضِي) "qâđī" (judge), because it is an annexing noun.
  • In the third sentence of the first column: (هَذَا قَاضٍ) "hādhā qâđi-n" (This is a judge), the yā’ is omitted because the word "qâđī" is indefinite (not prefixed with (ال)), and not annexing to another noun.
  • What has been said about the nominative case in which the diacritical sign đammah is assumed or virtual is also applied to the genitive case, so the diacritical sign of kasrah is assumed. The omission of the final-word (ي) "yā’" /-ī/ depends on whether the word is definite, indefinite, or annexed.
  • The accusative case is the only different case where the diacritical sign fatћah appears on the manqūŝ noun. The final-word (ي) "yā’" /-ī/ in the manqūŝ noun is always written. This is because the (ي) is omitted when the manqūŝ noun is indefinite, not annexed, or not in the accusative case ending with the short fatħah. But when it ends with the short fatħah, the letter (ي) is written, even if the word is not annexed or indefinite. Consider examples no. (2):

مَنْصُوبٌ وَفِيهِ "الْ"

accusative and definite

زَارَ أَبِي النَّادِيَ

zara abī al-nādiy-a

My father visited the club.

مَنْصُوبٌ وَلَيْسَ مُضَافًا وَلَيْسَ فِيهِ "الْ"

In the accusative and indefinite

رَأى أَخِي نَادِيًا كَبِيرًا

ra’ā akhī nādiya-n kabīra-n

My brother saw a big club.

مَنْصُوبٌ وَمُضَافٌ

In the accusative and annexed

أَنَا أُحِبُّ نَادِيَ الشَّمْسِ

anā uћibbu nādiya al-shams

I love al-Shams Club.

مَنْصُوبٌ وَلَيْسَ مُضَافًا وَلَيْسَ فِيهِ "الْ"

In the accusative, indefinite and not annexed

رَأَى أَبِي نَادِيًا كَبِيرًا

ra’ā abī nādiya-n kabīra-n

My father saw a big club.