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Lesson 27 – الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ الاسْمُ الْمَقْصُورُ والْمَنْقُوصُ والْمَمْدُودُ

Introduction – مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson, we will study the nouns that end with vowels In-Shā’-Allâh (God-Willing). The vowels are described as “weak letters” that cannot have diacritic signs (e.g. đammah, fatħah, kasrah, sukūn).  The importance of this is that these words do not change in the physical sense in different cases – e.g. the word is said to have an “assumed” Kasrah – even though in reality it has no Kasrah visible.
  • The weak letters in the Arabic language are (ا) "alif", (و) "wāw", and (ي) "yā’'". We will find that some Arabic nouns end with an alif maqŝūrah, and are therefore called (اسْمٌ مَقْصُورٌ) "maqŝūr noun” or “ism maqŝūr" [a noun ending with a long alif /-ā/].  Look at the examples below, pay particular attention to coloured words in the 2nd and 3rd examples which would normally end with a Kasrah on the last letter but have no vowel mark:

ћađara Muŝŧafā ilā al-mustashfā

Mustafa came to the hospital.

حَضَرَ مُصْطَفى إِلَى المُسْتَشْفَى

satazūru ’ukhtī Hudā Parīs

My sister Huda will visit Paris.

سَتَزُورُ  أخْتِي هُدَى بَارِيسَ

yaĵlisu abī ξalā al-maqhā

My father sits at a café.

يَجْلِسُ أَبِي عَلَى الْمَقْهَى

 

  • Some Arabic nouns end with the letter (ي) (yā’) /-ī/ and are called (اسْمٌ مَنْقُوصٌ) "manqūŝ noun” or “ism manqūŝ" [a noun ending with the long vowel ''].  The same rule as discussed above regarding diacritical marks applies here. Notice for example that normally the word in the first sentence below would have a đammah as it is in the nominative case (as it is the subject of a verbal sentence)  please view the examples below:

حَضَرَ الْقَاضِي مُبَكِّرًا

ћađara al-qâđī mubakkira-n

The judge came early.

الثَّوْبُ الْغَالِي جَمِيلٌ

al-thawbu al-ghâlī ĵamīlu-n

The expensive garment is beautiful.

اِسْمُ أَخِي شَادِي

ismu akhī Shādī

My brother is called Shadi

  • There is a third type of noun, which does not end with a vowel but with a (ء) "hamzah" [glottal stop], which is a semi-weak letter. This type of nouns is called (اسْمٌ مَمْدُودٌ) "mamdūd noun, or ism mamdūd" [a noun ending with a hamzah (ء) preceded by a long alif]

الجَوُّ نَظِيفٌ في الصَّحْراءِ

al-ĵawwu nađhīfu-n fi aŝ-ŝaћrâ’

Air is clean in the desert.

اِسْمُ أُخْتِي حَسْناءُ

Ismu ukhtī ћasnā’

My sister's name is Hasnā

هَذِهِ حَقِيبَةٌ زَرْقاءُ

Hādhihī ћaqībatu-n zarqâ’u

This is a blue bag

  • We will also learn how we can write the dual and plural of these numerals In-Shā’-Allâh (God Willing). For example:

Plural in the nominative case

الْجَمْعُ الْمَرْفُوعُ

Plural in the accusative and genitive cases

الجمع المنصوب والمجرور

Dual in the nominative case

الْمُثَنَّى الْمَرْفُوعُ

Dual in the accusative and genitive cases

الْمُثَنَّى الْمَنْصُوبُ وَالْمَجْرُورُ

Type   نَوْعُهَا

Word الْكَلِمَةُ

مُصْطَفَوْنَ

Musŧafawna

مُصْطَفَيْنَ

Musŧafayna

مُصْطَفَيَانِ

Musŧafayāni

مُصْطَفَيَينِ

Musŧafayayni

مَقْصُورٌ

Maqŝūr

مُصْطَفى

Musŧafā

قَاضُونَ

Qâdūna

قَاضِينَ

Qâđīna

قَاضِيانِ

Qâđiyāni

قَاضِيَيْنِ

Qâđiyayni

مَنْقُوصٌ

Manqūŝ

قَاضِي

Qâđī

بَنَّاؤُونَ

Bannā’ūni

بَنَّائِينَ

Bannā’īni

بَنَّاءانِ

Bannā’āni

بَنَّاءَيْنِ

Bannā’ayni

مَمْدُودٌ

Mamdūd

بَنَّاءٌ

Bannā’