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Lesson 11-الدَّرْسُ الْحَادِيَ عَشَرَ

The Present Tense - الْفِعْلُ الْمُضَارِعُ

  • In this section, we will learn the parts of the verbal sentences and their cases In-Shā’-Allâh. We will also learn the present form of a verb. We have already learnt that a verbal sentence has three parts (Lesson No. 4 section 12)
  • We have learnt that the verb refers to three tenses (periods):
  • In this section we will learn about the present form of the verb يُحِبُّ meaning "Likes or Loves". The present form of the verb takes – originally - the nominative case, but with a single đammah. It never takes two đammas.  We have also learnt in the previous lesson that the object of a verbal sentence takes the accusative case i.e., it takes single fatħah when definite and double fatħah (Fatħatain) when indefinite. When we say:

يُحِبُّ أَكْبَرُ الْكِتَابَة َ  (Akbar loves writing)

نُحِبُّ دِينَنَا    (We love our religion)

  • The word نُحِبُّ means "we love", so "love" is the verb and "we" is the subject whereas our religion is the object and therefore it must take the accusative case. Now if we look at this example carefully we see that the word دِينَنَا  is basically (دِينَ + نَا), so the word دِينَ take the accusative case, and since it is annexed with a pronoun so it is Muđâf and cannot take tanwīn.
  • However, when a pronoun is the object of some verb, it does not take accusative case because the pronouns are generally indeclinable therefore they do not change their cases. Let’s take some examples to better understand the rule: