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Lesson 5 الدَّرْسُ الْخَامِسُ

Hamza tul Wasl  - هَمْزَةُ الْوَصْلِ 

·      In this part of lesson we will learn about a new concept which is the use of letter Alif in Arabic. In Arabic the letter "Alif" has two types:

o  One type of Alif is called "Hamza tul Qaŧξ". This type of Alif is always pronounced irrespective of whether it is preceded by some word or letter.

o  While the other form of Alif is called "Hamza tul Waŝl". This form of Alif appears in the beginning of a word but if preceded by some word or letter it is not pronounced even if written.

·      Please read the following examples:




Type of /Alif/

He is the teacher's son

/Huwab nul mudarrisi/

هُوَ ٱبْنُ ٱلْمُدَرِّسِ.

هَمْزَةُ الْوَصْلِ

And the girl's name is Aminah

/Was mul binti Aaminatu/

وَٱسْمُ ٱلبِنْتِ آمِنَةُ.

هَمْزَةُ الْوَصْلِ

·      In the above mentioned examples the letter /Alif/ of the words are written but they are not pronounced. In the first example, the letter /alif/ of the word /ibn/ (meaning son) is written yet not pronounced and the letter /ba/ is joined together with letter /wa/ of /howa/ and is pronounced /huwabnu/. This is similar to the letter /alif/ of the word /almudarrisi/, the letter /alif/ is written yet not pronounced and the letters /nūn/ of /Ibn/ (meaning son) and /lām/ are joined together to become /nul/ and the sentence becomes /huwab-nul mudarrisi/.

·      Similarly in the second example the letter /wa/ is joined with the word /Ism/ whose /alif/ is written but not pronounced and the word becomes /wasm/ and the /Alif/ of /Albinti/ is written but not pronounced so they become /was-mul-binti/. Therefore the sentence becomes /Was-mul-binti Aaminatu/.




Type of Alif

I am Ahmad

Ana Aħmadu

أَنَا أَحْمَدُ.

هَمْزَةُ الْقَطْعِ

Where are you from

Min aina anti

مِنْ أَيْنَ أَنْتِ؟

هَمْزَةُ الْقَطْعِ

Who are you

Man anta

مَنْ أَنْتَ؟

هَمْزَةُ الْقَطْعِ

  • In these examples the letter /Alif/ of the words Ahmad, /Aina/ and /Anta/ are written and are pronounced. No letters are merged together. This type of /Alif/ is called /Hamza tul Qaŧξ/.
  • There is no specific rule for recognizing /Hamza tul Qaŧξ/ and /Hamza tul Waŝl but the pronouns, the interrogative articles and the nouns beginning with /Alif/ have /Hamza tul Qaŧξ/.
  • It must be however remembered that when /Hamza tul Waŝl/ is written in the beginning of a sentence and is not preceded by any letter or word, it is pronounced. It is dropped only when it is preceded by some letter or word. /Hamza tul Qaŧξ/ is always written and pronounced and is not affected if preceded by any letter or word.
  • Please read the following sentences carefully and then click on the words to hear the speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.



Arabic: lesson image

Who are you?

I am the son of Abbas

مَنْ أَنْتَ؟

أَنَا ٱبْنُ عَبَّاسٍ. lesson image

And whose son is he?

He is the son of Khalid

وَٱبْنُ مَنْ هُوَ؟

هُوَ ٱبْنُ خَالِدٍ. lesson lesson image

The teacher's name is Saeed

and the engineer's name is Khalid

اِسْمُ الْمُدَرِّسِ سَعِيْدٌ.

وَٱسْمُ الْمُهَنْدِسِ خَالِدٌ. lesson lesson image

Ammar's son is a student

and Yasir's son is a trader

اِبْنُ عَمَّارٍ طَالِبٌ

وَٱبْنُ يَاسِرٍ تَاجِرٌ. lesson image

Where is the son of the engineer?

He is in the university

أَيْنَ ٱبْنُ الْمُهَنْدِسٍ؟

هُوَ فِي الْجَامِعَةِ

  • In the next part of the lesson we will  In-Shā’-Allâh (God-Willing) learn a new concept which is the use of Vocative Articles.
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