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Lesson 5 الدَّرْسُ الْخَامِسُ

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson we will learn the following things:
    • In part one of this lesson we will learn the expression which shows ownership of one thing over another - e.g., "The teacher's car". This is called The Possessive Expression in English and /Muđâf and Muđâf  Ilaihi/ in Arabic:

English:

Transliteration:

Arabic:

The book of the student

/Kitabuŧ ŧâlibi /

كِتَابُ الطَّالِبِ

On the desk of the teacher

/ξala maktabil mudarrisi/

عَلَىٰ مَكْتَبِ الْمُدَرِّسِ

    • In Arabic the letter /Alif/ is used in two different ways. One of them is called /Hamza tul Qaŧξ/ and the other is called /Hamza tul Waŝl/. Hamza tul Qaŧξ is the one which is pronounced while Hamza tul Waŝl is the one which is not pronounced:

Translation:

Transliteration:

Arabic:

Type of Alif

Where are you from

/Min aina anta/

مِنْ أَيْنَ أَنْتَ؟

هَمْزَةُ الْقَطْعِ

He is the teacher's son

/Howab nul mudarrisi/

هُوَ ٱبْنُ ٱلْمُدَرِّسِ

هَمْزَةُ الْوَصْلِ

    • In Arabic, words normally change their cases with different causes (see Lesson 4-section 2).  We will look at the “indeclinable” words which do not change their case with different causes and maintain their vowel ending:

Translation:

Indeclinable Words /Mabni/

الْكَلِمَاتُ الْمَبْنِيَّةُ

This (masculine)

هَـٰذَا

Who

مَنْ

He

هُوَ

    • The rule for the use of the vocative particle (the word used to call someone like Oh):

Translation:

Transliteration:

Arabic:

Oh Muhammad

/Yaa Muhammadu/

يَا مُحَمَّدُ

Oh Allah

/Yaa Allahu/

يَا اللهُ

Oh teacher

/Yaa Ustadhu/

يَا أُسْتَاذُ