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Lesson 84 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِع والثَّمانون أُسْلُوبُ الإغْرَاءِ وَالتَّحْذِيرِ

The exhortation – الإغراء

  • The exhortation is originally formed by using certain verbs which encourage someone to do something laudable.
  • The verb is always omitted, and so the doer which is originally a latent pronoun indicating the spoken to (second person).
  • Therefore the remaining part of the verbal sentence of the exhortation is the direct object which refers the laudable matter.
  • The eliminated verb is supposed to be (الْزَمْ) which means (stick to) in the imperative form.
  • Consider the following example:

English

Arabic

Oh man, (stick to) Sincerity

الصِّدْقَ يا رَجُلُ

  • You may notice that the object of exhortation (الصِّدْقَ) is in the accusative case, signed with fatħah on its last letter, because it is a direct object related to the omitted verb (الزَمْ).
  • In the above mentioned example there was one single noun to express the exhortation. The object of the exhortation can be in one of three forms as follows:

1- A single noun (as in the example shown above).

2- Repeated, as in the following example:

English

Arabic

Sincerity, sincerity.

الصِّدْقَ الصِّدْقَ

  • The first noun in the above mentioned sentence is an object of the exhortation, while the second noun is a confirmative, so it is also in the accusative case (signed with a fatħah on its last letter) because the confirmative follows the declension case of the preceding noun (see lesson 81).

3- The third type is that which is followed by a coordinated noun, with the coordination article (وَ).

  • Consider the following example:

English

Arabic

Sincerity and honesty.

الصِّدْقَ وَالأَمانَةَ

  • The first noun in the above mentioned sentence is an object related to the omitted verb (الْزَمْ) of the exhortation, while the second noun which falls after the particle (wa) is a coordinated noun. The coordinated noun is a follower, i.e. it follows the declension case of the preceding noun (see lesson 79).
  • More examples:

Structure

Example

Type of exhortation

The object of exhortation

English

Arabic

Coordination

الْعَمَلَ

Work and hard work

الْعَمَلَ وَالاجْتِهادَ

Repetition

الْعَمَلَ

Work, work

الْعَمَلَ الْعَمَلَ

Repetition

أَخَاكَ

Your brother, your brother

أَخَاكَ أَخَاكَ

Repetition

الْعَسَلَ

The honey, the honey

الْعَسَلَ الْعَسَلَ

Coordination

الْعَمَلَ

Work and worship

الْعَمَلَ وَالْعِبادَةَ

Coordination

الْشَّجَاعَةَ

Courage and loyalty

الْشَّجَاعَةَ وَالوَفَاءَ

  • In each of the examples mentioned above the first noun is in the accusative case (signed with fatħah on its last letter) because it is a direct object related to an omitted verb (الْزَمْ) of the exhortation. The second noun in each of the above mentioned examples is either a confirmative (repeated noun) or a coordinated noun linked to the preceding object through the particle (wa). Each of the confirmative and the coordinated nouns is a follower. i.e. it follows the declension case of the object of the exhortation, so that they are also in the accusative case (signed with fatħah on their last letters)