Lesson 80 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّمانون
The followers(3) The substitute - التَّــوَابِع(٣)الْـبَـدَل
Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ
- In this lesson we still study the followers (التَّوَابِع), i.e. the parts of the sentence which follows the preceding part in the declension case, and/or in other things as gender and number. We covered two of the followers so far. In lesson 78 we learnt the adjective and lesson 79 we learnt the coordination. In this lesson we will learn the third follower, which is the substitute (البدَل), In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing). There will be one more follower to study in the next lesson (81); the confirmative (التَّوكِيد).
- The substitute (البَدَل) is the follower which is meant when we mention the preceding noun, and it comes after the preceding noun as a repetition of the meaning (by another pronunciation) without any intermediary (particle).
- This means that each of the substitute and the followed noun is meant in the sentence, because each of them refers to the same meaning. Consider the following example:
The student Muhammad came
- In the above mentioned sentence, the doer is (الطَّالِب), and the proper noun (مُحَمَّد) has the same declension of the doer (nominative case, with đammah on its last letter), because we mean it when we mention the verb (حَضَرَ), and it refers to the same person mentioned by the doer (الطَّالِبُ), which is called here the substituted for (المُبْدَل مِنْهُ).
- Therefore the followed noun in the above mentioned structure is the substituted for, and it is declined according to its position in the sentence, while the follower (the substitute) takes the same declension case of the substituted for.
- In this lesson we will learn the types of the substitute and its conditions, In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing).