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Madinah Arabic Learn Arabic Online
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Lesson 78 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّامِنُ والسَّبْعونَ

The followers(1) The adjective  -  التَّــوَابِع(١) النَّعْتُ

The real adjective and the occasional adjective – النعت السَّببي والنَّعْت الحقيقي

  • The adjective is divided, regarding its meaning, into two types; the real adjective and the occasional adjective.

-          The real adjective shows the qualities of the preceding described noun, and follows it by pronunciation and meaning. I.e. it follows the described noun in declension, definition, number and gender. Consider the following example (please read from right to left):

Adjective

Described noun

example

English

Arabic

الْمُجْتَهِدُ

الطَّالِبُ

This is the hardworking student

هَذَا هُو الطَّالِبُ الْمُجْتَهِدُ

-          The occasional adjective shows the qualities of the following described noun, and the described noun is related to a preceding noun. The adjective in this case follows the preceding noun by the pronunciation, and follows the described noun by the meaning. I.e. it follows the preceding noun in declension and definition, while it follows the described noun in gender and number. Consider the following example (please read from right to left)

Described noun

Adjective

Preceding noun

Example

English

Arabic

أَخُوه

الْمُجْتَهِدُ

الطَّالِبُ

This is the student whose brother is hardworking

هَذَا هُو الطَّالِبُ الْمُجْتَهِدُ أَخُوه

  • You may notice in the above mentioned example that the adjective (الْمُجْتَهِدُ) does not describe the preceding noun (الطَّالِب), rather it describes the following noun (أخُوهُ) which is related to the preceding noun.
  • The Arabic term (النعت السببي) means in the literal translation (the causal adjective), because the word (سَبب) means (cause or reason). This makes us understand that the preceding noun is mentioned because we want to mention the qualities of the other noun related to it.
  • You may also notice that the adjective in the above mentioned example follows the preceding noun in the declension and in the definition, while it follows the described noun in the gender and number.
  • More examples:

Described noun

Adjective

Preceding noun

Example

English

Arabic

حَاكِمُهُ

الْعادِلَ

الْبَلَدَ

I like the country which its governor is fair (just)

أُحِبُّ الْبَلَدَ الْعادِلَ حَاكِمُهُ

قَائِدُهُ

الظَّالِمَ

النِّظَامَ

And I hate the regime which his leader is unjust

وَأَكْرَهُ النِّظَامَ الظَّالِمَ قَائِدُهُ

أبُوهُما

كَرِيمٌ

وَلَدانِ

These are two boys whose father is generous

هَذانِ وَلَدانِ كَرِيمٌ أبُوهُما

طَعَامُهُ

لَذِيذٌ

مَطْعَمٌ

This is a restaurant which its food is delicious

هَذَا مَطْعَمٌ لَذِيذٌ طَعَامُهُ

أَهْلُهُ

كِرامٌ

بَلَدٌ

This is a country which its people are generous

هَذَا بَلَدٌ كِرامٌ أَهْلُهُ

  • From the above mentioned examples we notice the following:

1-    The adjective is not describing the preceding noun, rather it shows the qualities of the following noun (the described noun).

2-    The adjective follows the preceding noun in the declension case (nominative, genitive, or accusative), and in the definition (or non definition).

3-    The adjective follows the described noun in gender and number.

4-    The described noun contains an attached pronoun related to the preceding noun; (حَاكِمُهُقائدُهُأبوهُماطَعَامُهُ - أَهْلُهُ). The attached pronoun has to match the preceding noun in gender and number.

5-    The described noun is always in the nominative case, because it is considered doer (agent) of the similar quality (i.e. the noun which is similar (in the function) to the verb, and can be followed by a doer). We will learn the similar quality in detail in lesson 100, In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing).

Following are some examples that shows the declension analysis of the real adjective, and the occasional adjective.

  • Example 1:

حَضَرَ الطَّالِبُ الْمُتَفَوِّقُ

Example

الْمُتَفَوِّقُ

الطَّالِبُ

حَضَرَ

Details

Adjective

Doer

Past verb

Type

Declension

Nominative

Nominative

Indeclinable

Case

Đammah

Đammah

Fatħah

Sign

  • Example 2:

أُحِبُّ الطُّلاَّبَ الْمُتَفَوِّقِينَ

Example

الْمُتَفَوِّقِينَ

الطُّلاَّبَ

أُحِبُّ

Details

Adjective

Direct object

Present verb

Type

Declension

Accusative

Accusative

Indicative

Case

Yaa’

Fatħah

Đammah

Sign

  • Example 3:

أُحِبُّ طُلاَّبَ العلمِ الْمُتَفَوِّقِينَ

Example

الْمُتَفَوِّقِينَ

العلمِ

طُلاَّبَ

أُحِبُّ

Details

Adjective

Annexed noun

Direct object

Present verb

Type

Declension

Accusative

Genitive

Accusative

Indicative

Case

Yaa’

Kasrah

Fatħah

Đammah

Sign

  • Example 4:

أَكَلْتُ طَعامًا لَذِيذًا طَعْمُهُ

Example

هُ

طَعْمُ

لَذِيذًا

طَعامًا

تُ

أَكَلْ

Details

Annexed noun

Doer

Occasional adjective

Direct object

Doer

Past verb

Type

Declension

Indeclinable

Nominative

Accusative

Accusative

Indeclinable

Indeclinable

Case

Đammah

đammah

Fatħah

Fatħah

Đammah

Sukūn

Sign

  • Example 5:

هَذَا بَلَدٌ كِرامٌ أَهْلُهُ

Example

هُ

أَهْلُ

كِرامٌ

بَلَدٌ

هَذَا

Details

Annexed noun

Doer

Occasional adjective

Predicate

Subject

Type

Declension

Indeclinable

Nominative

Nominative

Nominative

Indeclinable

Case

Đammah

Đammah

Đammah

Đammah

Sukūn

Sign