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Lesson 68 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّامِنُ والسِّتُّونَ

The causal object - الْمَفْعُول لأَجْلِهِ

The rules of the causal object – أحـكام الـمفعول لأجله

  • In this part we will learn the rules of the causal object (المفعول لأجله) In-Sā’-Allâh (God willing). There are three main rules of the causal object as follows:

1-           The causal object can be facultatively either in the accusative case, or in the genitive case after the preposition (لِ). Have a look at the following examples:

Picture

English meaning

Genitive

Accusative

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I visited Egypt because I like it

زُرْتُ مِصْرَ لِحُبِّي لَها

/zurtu miŝra liħubbi lahā/

زُرْتُ مِصْرَ حُبًّا لها

/zurtu miŝra ħubban lahā/

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I played and endured hopping to win

لَعِبْتُ وَصَبَرْتُ لأَمَلٍ فِي الفَوْزِ

/laξibtu wa ŝabartu li’amalin fī al fawzi/

لَعِبْتُ وَصَبَرْتُ أَمَلاً فِي الفَوْزِ

/laξibtu wa ŝabartu amalan fī al fawzi/

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I put the money in the safe desiring to keep it

وضَعْتُ المالَ فِي الخَزِينَةِ لِرَغْبَةٍ فِي الادِّخارِ

/wađaξtu al māla fī al khazīnati liraghbatin fī aliddikhâri/

وضَعْتُ المالَ فِي الخَزِينَةِ رَغْبَةً فِي الادِّخارِ

/wađaξtu al māla fī al khazīnati raghbatan fī aliddikhâri/

  • In the above mentioned table you may notice that the causal object is mainly in the accusative case, and it can be facultatively in the genitive case under a condition that it must be preceded by the preposition (لِ).

2-           The causal object is mainly placed after the direct object, and it can be facultatively placed at the beginning of the sentence:

English meaning

Facultatively before the verb

Normally, after the direct object

I came to the university (asking for) desiring the knowledge

رَغْبَةً فِي العِلْمِ أَتَيْتُ الجَامِعَةَ

/raghbatan fī al ξilmi ataytu al ĵāmiξati/

أَتَيْتُ الجَامِعَةَ رَغْبَةً فِي العِلْمِ

 /ataytu al ĵāmiξata raghbatan fīal ξilmi/

I put the money in the safe desiring to keep it

رَغْبَةً فِي الادِّخارِ وضَعْتُ المالَ فِي الخَزِينَةِ

/raghbatan fī aliddikhâri wađaξtu al māla fī al khazīnati/

وضَعْتُ المالَ فِي الخَزِينَةِ رَغْبَةً فِي الادِّخارِ

/wađaξtu al māla fī al khazīnati raghbatan fī aliddikhâri/

I played and endured hopping to win

أَمَلاً فِي الفَوْزِ لَعِبْتُ وَصَبَرْتُ

/amalan fī al fawzi laξibtu wa ŝabartu/

لَعِبْتُ وَصَبَرْتُ أَمَلاً فِي الفَوْزِ

/laξibtu wa ŝabartu amalan fī al fawzi/

  • In the above mentioned table you may notice that the causal object in the examples on the right side is in its main place after the direct object, and in the examples on the left hand side it is facultatively in the beginning of the sentence. The meaning is approximately the same. There is a small rhetoric difference according to the Arabic rule stating that the advanced word is the most important word in the speaker’s view point. 

3-           The causal object is mainly an indefinite noun, as follows:

Example

English

Arabic

I travelled asking for freedom

سافَرْتُ طَلَبًا لِلْحُرِّيَّةِ

/sāfartu ŧalaban lil ħurriyyati/

I visited my mother desiring her satisfaction

زُرتُ أُمِّي رَغْبَةً في رِضَاها

/zurtu ummi raghbatan fī riđâhā/

  • The causal object can also be definite by the definition article (ال) or by being annexed to another noun as follows:

a-           If the causal object is a definite by (ال) it will be in the genitive case after the preposition (لِ) as follows:

Picture

Example

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I travelled desiring to  perform pilgrimage

سافَرْتُ لِلرَّغْبَةِ فِي الْحَجِّ

/sāfartu lir raghbati fī al ħaĵĵi/

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I came here to study (for studying)

جِئْتُ لِلدِّرَاسَةِ

/ĵi’tu lid dirâsati/

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I came to help (for helping)

أَتَيْتُ لِلْمُسَاعَدَة

/ataytu lil musāξadati/

b-           If the causal object is annexed to another noun, it is possible to be in the accusative case or to be in the genitive case after the preposition (لِ) as in the following examples:

Englsih meaning

Genitive causal object

Accusative causal object

And do not kill your children for fear of poverty

وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلادَكُم لِخَشْيَةِ إمْلاقٍ

/wa lā taqtulū awlādakum li khashyati imlāqin/

وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلادَكُم خَشْيَةَ إمْلاقٍ

/wa lā taqtulū awlādakum khashyata imlāqin/

I worship Allah for fear of His torment

أَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ لِخَشْيَةِ عَذَابِهِ

/aξbudu Allaaha li kashyati ξadhābihi/

أَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ خَشْيَةَ عَذَابِهِ

/aξbudu Allaaha kashyata ξadhābihi/

I spend the wealth seeking Allah’s Countenance

أُنْفِقُ المَالَ لاِبْتِغاءِ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ

/unfiqu al māla libtighâ’i waĵhi Allaahi/

أُنْفِقُ المَالَ اِبْتِغاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ

/unfiqu al māla ibtighâ’a waĵhi Allaahi/