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Lesson 64 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ و السِّتُّونَ الفاعِل

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • We learnt earlier that the Arabic sentences are divided into two types: The nominal sentence, and the verbal sentence. We studied in lesson 58 the first type which is the nominal sentence. The nominal sentence consists – originally - of a subject and a predicate, e.g.: (مُحَمَّدٌ طَالِبٌ).
  • We also learnt in lesson 4 the verbal sentence which consists originally of two essential parts (the verb and the doer). The following table shows some examples of the verbal sentence:

The doer

The verb

Sentence

English

Arabic

خَالِدٌ

جَاءَ

Khalid came

جَاءَ خَالِدٌ

/ĵā’a khâlidun/

خَالِدٌ

جَاءَ

Khalid came by the care

جاءَ خَالِدٌ فِي السَّيارة

/ĵā’a khâlidun fī as sayyārati/

خَالِدٌ

كَتَبَ

Khalid wrote the lesson

كَتَبَ خَالِدٌ الدَّرْسَ

/kataba khâlidun ad darsa/

  • You may notice in the above mentioned examples that the verb (الفعل /al fiξl) and the doer (الفاعل /al fāξil/) are the two essential parts of the verbal sentence. Each of them is an indispensable part, while the other parts (the prepositional complement, the adverb, or the adjective) are optional (dispensable) parts.
  • We studied in details the first part of the verbal sentence (the verb) from lesson 28 up to lesson 40. In this lesson we are going to learn the second part (the doer) In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • In this lesson we will learn the following topics:

1-The rules of the doer, e.g.:

The doer

Meaning

Example

The rule

الشَّمْسُ

The sun rose

أَشْرَقَتِ الشَّمْسُ

/ashraqat ash shamsu/

The doer is always in nominative case

الأَطْفالُ

The children slept

نامَ الأَطْفَالُ

/nāma al aŧfālu/

The doer comes after the verb

 

2-The types of the doer:

The doer

Meaning

Example

The type of the doer

السَّماءُ

(The sky) It rained

أَمْطَرَتِ السَّماءُ

/amŧarat as samā’u/

Evident noun

تَ

Did you write the lesson?

هَلْ كَتَبْتَ الدَّرْسَ؟

/hal katabta ad darsa/

Attached pronoun

 

3-The doer affects the gender of the verb.

 We studied in lesson 30 that the verb can be feminine or masculine according to the doer, while the verb is originally in singular form, i.e. it cannot be dual or plural. We will also learn some exceptions of this rule.