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Lesson 47 – الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ

Pronouns 4 of 5 –الضَّمَائرُ (٤ من ٥)

Genitive attached pronoun - ضَّمير الجَّرَّ المُتَّصِل

Genitive Attached Pronoun in position of annexed noun

  • We learnt before the annexation structure (الإضافة /al iđâfah), which is compound of two nouns: The first is called annexing (مُضافٌ) and the second is annexed (مُضَافٌ إلَيْهِ). The second noun gives a meaning of specification or possession to the first one.
  • Now we are studying this structure while its second part is pronoun, so it is represented as possessive suffix, in place of genitive noun (مَحَلّ جَرّ / maħall ĵarr). In the following table there is the full conjugation of this kind of pronoun:

1- attached pronouns as possessive suffixes:

 

Singular مُفْرَدٌ

Dual مُثَنَّى

Plural جَمْعٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

3rd. person

غَائِبٌ

ـهُ (ـهِ)

ـهَا

ـهُمَا (ـهِما)

ـهُمْ (ـهِمْ)

ـهُنَّ (ـهِنَّ)

كِتابُهُ – كِتابِهِ

كِتابُها

كِتابُهُما - كِتابِهِما

كِتابُهُمْ – كِتابِهِمْ

كِتابُهُنَّ – كِتابِهِنَّ

2nd. Person

مُخَاطَبٌ

ـكَ

ـكِ

ـكُمَا

ـكُمْ

ـكُنَّ

كتابُكَ

كِتابُكِ

كِتابُكُما

كِتابُكُمْ

كِتابُكُنَّ

1st. person

مُتَكَلِّمٌ

ـِي

ـنا

كِتابِي

كِتابُنا

  • We learn from the above mentioned table the following:
    • The (hā'هـ) of the third person again is affected phonetically by the previous sound, so in all the pronouns of the third person (except for the singular feminine Hā) the letter (hha'هـ) has two probabilities:
      1. Either to be signed with đammah if the noun is ended with đammah or Fatħah, i.e. when the annexing noun is in nominative or in accusative case.
      2. Or to be signed with Kasrah if the noun is signed with Kasrah, i.e. in genitive case.
  • Consider the following examples:

Grammatical case of the annexing noun

3rd. S. m.

هُـوَ

3rd. D.

هُـما

3rd. Pl. m.

هُـمْ

3rd. Pl. f.

هُـنَّ

explanation

Nominative

هَذا كِتابُـهُ.

This is his book

هَذَا كِتابُـهُما.

This is their book

هَذَا كِتابُـهُمْ.

This is their book

هَذَا كِتابُـهُنَّ.

This is their book

The letter Hā' of the pronoun is signed with đammah because the preceding letter is signed with đammah (nominative noun)

Accusative

أَخَذَ كِتَابَـهُ.

He took his book

أخَذَا كِتابَـهُما.

They took their book

أخَذُوا كِتَابَــهُمْ.

They took their book

أَخَذْنَ كِتَابَـهُنَّ.

They took their book

The hā' is signed with đammah also because the noun ending is signed with fatħah (accusative case)

genitive

قَرَأَ في كِتَابِـهِ.

He read his book

قَرَأا في كِتابِهِما.

They read their book

قرَءُوا في كِتَابِهِمْ.

They read their book

قَرَأْنَ في كِتابِـهِنَّ.

They read their book

The hā' here is signed with Kasrah because the preceding noun is ended with kasra (genitive case)

  • We also learn from the table of the possessive pronouns that we have only one form for the 1st. person singular pronoun, which is the long vowel (ī ـي). Here we don't need the form (nī نـي) which we used with the verbs and called it (Nūn of protection); because now we are dealing with noun, and it is allowed that the noun be signed with Kasrah, so there is no need to protect it by that (Nūn).
  • Study the following examples:

 

Example

Corresponding attached pronoun

Detached pronoun

Type of pronoun

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هَذَا صَدِيقِي عُمَر هُو طَبِيبٌ.

This is my friend, Umar. He is a doctor.

ي

أَنا

First person

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هَذَا بَيْتُنا وَهُوَ بَيْتٌ كَبِيرٌ.

This is our house. It is big.

نا

نَحْنُ

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هَلْ كَتَبْتَ وَاجِبَكَ يا خَالِدُ؟

Have you done your homework, Khalid?

كَ

أَنْتَ

Second person

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هَلْ تُحِبِّينَ زَوْجَكِ يا فَاطِمَةُ؟

Do you love you husband, Fatimah?

نَعَمْ ، أُحِبُّهُ.

Yes, I love him.

كِ

أَنْتِ

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مَا بَلَدُكُمَا؟

What is your home country?

بَلَدُنَا مِصْرُ.

Our home country is Egypt.

كُما

أَنْتُمَا

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مَا جِنْسِيَّتُكُمْ؟

What is your nationality?

نَحْنُ بَاكِسْتَانِيُّون.

We are Pakistanis.

كُمْ

أَنْتُمْ

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يا نِساءُ أَطِعْنَ أَزْوَاجَكُنَّ؟

O women, obey your husbands.

كُنَّ

أَنْتُنَّ

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هَلْ هَذا وَالِدُ عِمْرانَ؟

Is this is Umran’s father?

لا، هَذَا عَمُّهُ.

No, this is his uncle.

ـهُ

هُوَ

Third person

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هَلْ هَذِهِ أُمُّهَا؟

Is this her mother?

لا، هَذِهِ خَالَتُهَا.

No, this is her aunt.

ها

هِيَ

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هَلْ تَعْرِفُ حَسَّانَ وَصَفْوانَ؟

Do you know Hassan and Safwan?

نَعِمْ، فَأنا صَدِيقُهُما.

Yes, I am their friend.

وَكَيْفَ حَالُهُما؟

How are they?

هُما بِخَيْرٍ وَالحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ.

They are fine, praise be to God.

هُمَا

هُمَا

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هَلْ هذا مَجْلِسُ الوُزَرَاء؟

Is this the council of ministers?

نعم، هَذَا مجلسُهم.

Yes, this is their council.

هَلْ هَذا لِقاؤهُمُ الشَّهْرِيُّ.

Is this their monthly meeting?

لا، هذَا اِجْتِماعُهُم الأُسْبُوعِي.

No, this is their weekly meeting.

هُم

هُمْ

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أَيْن مَلابِسُ البَناتِ وحقائبُهُن؟

Where are the girls’ clothes and bags?

مَلابِسُهُنَّ فِي خَزَائِنِهِنَّ، وَحقائبُهُن تَحْتَ سُرُرِهِنَّ.

Their clothes are in their closets and their bags and under their beds.

 

هُنَّ

 

هُنَّ

  • By this point we finish the genitive attached pronoun in position of annexed noun (possessive suffix), so we have to study the other type of genitive attached pronoun after the following exercises.