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Lesson 28 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّامِنُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ

Types of Verbs: Past, Present and Imperative - أَنْوَاعُ الْفِعْلِ: الْمَاضِي وَالْمُضَارِعُ وَالأَمْرُ

How to formulate the present and imperative verbs from the past verb? - كَيْفَ نَصُوغُ الْفِعْلَ الْمُضَارِعَ وَالأَمْرَ مِنَ الْفِعْلِ الْمَاضِي؟

  • It is useful to think of the Arabic verb as being made of individual letters. The number of letters in the past tense form determines the change of signs in the present and imperative forms.
  • The simple trilateral verb (which is composed of three letters) is the most common form; examples of this include بَعَثَ، هَدَمَ، دَرَسَ، غَسَل، مَسَحَ، كَنَسَ.   This past form is composed of three letters, and that is why the present form derived from it starts with a fatħah on its initial prefixed letter, as in the following examples:

Picture

مَاضٍ

Past

مُضَارِعٌ

present

أَمْرٌ

Imperative

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بَعَثَ

baξatha (sent)

يَبْعَثُ

(send)  yabξathu

اِبْعَثْ

ibξath (send)

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هَدَمَ

hadama (demolished)

يَهْدِمُ

yahdimu (demolish)

اِهْدِمْ

ihdim (demolish)

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دَرَسَ

darasa (studied)

يَدْرُسُ

yadrusu (study)

اُدْرُسْ

udrus (study)

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غَسَل

ghasala (washed)

يَغْسِلُ

yaghsilu (wash)

اِغْسِلْ

ighsil (wash)

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كَنَسَ

kanasa (swept)

يَكْنُسُ

yaknusu (sweep)

اُكْنُسْ

uknus (sweep)

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مَاضٍ

Past

مُضَارِعٌ

present

أَمْرٌ

Imperative

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أخَرَجَ
akhraĵa (evicted)

يُخْرِجُ

yukhriĵu (evict)

أَخْرِجْ

akhriĵ (take out)

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دَرَّسَ
darrasa (taught)

يُدَرِّسُ

yudarrisu (teach)

دَرِّسْ

darris (teach)

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خَاصَمَ
khâŝama (quarreled)

يُخَاصِمُ

yukhâŝimu (quarrel)

خَاصِمْ

khâŝim (quarrel)

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أَسْرَفَ
asrafa (squandered)

يُسْرِفُ

yusrifu (squander)

أَسْرِفْ

asrif (squander)

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دَنَّسَ
dannasa (desecrated)

يُدَنِّسُ

yudannisu (desecrate)

دَنِّسْ

dannis (desecrate)

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شَاهَدَ
shāhada (watched)

يُشَاهِدُ

yushāhidu (watch)

شَاهِدْ

shāhid (watch)

    • The present form of these verbs starts with fatħah on its initial letter as the case in the trilateral verb.
    • The imperative form of these verbs is derived through changing the diacritical sign on the penultimate letter to kasrah, as in the following table:

Picture

مَاضٍ

Past

مُضَارِعٌ

present

أَمْرٌ

Imperative

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اِرْتَفَعَ

irtafaξa (rose)

يَرْتَفِعُ
yartafiξu (rise)

اِرْتَفِعْ

irtafiξ (rise)

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تَكَلَّمَ

Takallama

(spoke)

يَتَكَلَّمُ

Yatakallamu

(speak)

تَكَلَّمْ

Takallam

 (speak)

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اِنْقَلَبَ

inqalaba (overturned)

يَنْقَلِبُ

yanqalibu (overturn)

اِنْقَلِبْ

inqalib (overturn)

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انْتَشَرَ

intashara (spread)

يَنْتَشِرُ

yantashiru (spread)

اِنْتَشِرْ

intashir (spread)

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تَصَوَّرَ

taŝawwara (imagined)

يَتَصَوَّرُ

yataŝawwaru (imagine)

تَصَوَّرْ

taŝawwar (imagine)

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اِنْبَهَرَ

inbahara (was/were dazzled)

يَنْبَهِرُ

yanbahiru (be dazzled)

اِنْبَهِرْ

inbahir (be dazzled)

مَاضٍ

Past

مُضَارِعٌ

present

أَمْرٌ

Imperative

اِسْتَخْرَجَ

istakhraĵa (extracted)

يَسْتَخْرِجُ

yastakhriĵu (extract)

اِسْتَخْرِجْ

istakhriĵ (extract)

اسْتَعْمَلَ

Istaξmala (used)

يَسْتَعْمِلُ

yastaξmilu (use)

اِسْتَعْمِلْ

istaξmil (use)

اِسْتَخْدَمَ

istakhdama (used)

يَسْتَخْدِمُ

yastakhdimu (use)

اِسْتَخْدِمْ

istakhdim (use)

اِستَعْلَمَ

istaξlama (inquired)

يَسْتَعْلِمُ

yastaξlimu (inquire)

اِسْتَعْلِمْ

istaξlim (inquire)

اِسْتَبْشَرَ

istabshara (rejoiced)

يَسْتَبْشِرُ

yastabshiru (rejoice)

اِسْتَبْشِرْ

istabshir (rejoice)

اِسْتَكْبَرَ

istakbara (to be proud)

يَسْتَكْبِرُ

yastakbiru

اِسْتَكْبِرْ

istakbir

  • At the end of this part, it is worth mentioning that the subject of the imperative verb is always one of the following (note – all of these are in the 2nd person – i.e. person(s) we are speaking to that is / are present): (anta, anti, antumā, antum or antunna) أنْتَ، أنْتِ، أنْتُمَا، أنْتُمْ، أنْتُنَّ.
  • Let us look at some examples of sentences using the 3 different forms of verbs that we have discussed (past, present and imperative).

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English

Arabic

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Allah sent prophets to guide people.

بَعَثَ اللهُ الأنْبِيَاءَ لِهِدَايَةِ النَّاسِ

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The student sweeps his room.

يَكْنُسُ الطَّالِبُ غُرْفَتَهُ

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Clean your room, my son.

نَظِّفْ غُرْفَتَكَ يَا بُنَيّ

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Islam spread in many countries

اِنْتَشَرَ الإسْلامُ فِي بِلادٍ كَثِيرَةٍ

 

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I love to use the computer.

أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَسْتَخْدِمَ الْحَاسُوبَ

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Do not be proud, Saξīd.

يَاسَعِيدُ، لا تَسْتَكْبِرْ في الأرْضِ

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Be modest with other people, Khalīl.

يَاخَلِيلُ، تَوَاضعْ مَعَ النَّاسِ

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The traveller inquires about the plane departure time.

يَسْتَعْلِمُ الْمُسَافِرُ عَنْ مَوْعِدِ إقْلاعِ الطَّائِرةِ