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Lesson 26 – الدرس السَّادِسُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ المركب العددي

Numbers (20, 30, 40 … etc.) - ألفاظ العقود

  • There are numbers in the Arabic language that are called (ألفاظ العقود) "alfaađh al-ξuquud" (20, 30, 40 … etc.):

Numbers in letters (accusative or genitive case)

Numbers in letters (nominative case)

Numbers in digits

عشرين

ξishriina

عِشْرون

ξishruun

20

٢٠

ثلاثين

thalathiin

ثلاثون

thalathuun

30

٣٠

أربعين

arbaξiin

أربعون

arbaξuun

40

٤٠

خمسين

khamsiin

خمسون

khamsuun

50

٥٠

ستين

sittiin

ستون

sittuun

60

٦٠

سبعين

sabξiin

سبعون

sabξuun

70

٧٠

ثمانين

thmāniin

ثمانون thmānuun

80

٨٠

تسعين

tisξiin

تِسْعون

tisξuun

90

٩٠

  • Alfaađh al-ξuquud are declinable, to which the rules of (جمع المذكر السالم) "ĵamξu mudhakkar sālim" (regular masculine plural) are applied. They always end with (ـون) "-uun" or (ـين) "-iin" according to their position in the sentence. Here are some examples:

English:

Transliteration:

Arabic:

Twenty Muslims came

Ĵā’a ξishruun musliman

جاءَ عِشْرُونَ مُسْلِمًا

The Muslims came

Ĵā’a al-muslimuun

جاءَ المُسْلِمُونَ

The Muslim came

Ĵā’a al-muslimu

جاءَ المُسْلِمُ

I saw twenty Muslims

Ra'aytu ξishriin musliman

رَأَيْتُ عِشْرِينَ مُسْلِمًا

I saw the Muslims

Ra'aytu al-muslimiin

رَأَيْتُ المُسْلِمِينَ

I saw the Muslim

Ra'aytu al-muslima

رَأَيْتُ المُسْلِمَ

I live with twenty Muslims

Askunu maξa ξishriin musliman

أَسْكُنُ مَعَ عِشْرِينَ مُسْلِمًا

I live with the Muslims

Askunu maξa al-muslimiin

أَسْكُنُ مَعَ المُسْلِمِينَ

I live with the Muslim

Askunu maξa al-muslimi

أَسْكُنُ معَ المُسْلِمِ

  • Sometimes a composite number consists of two numbers connected with (wa “and”), such as:

These are twenty-one teachers

هَؤُلاءِ وَاحِدٌ وَعِشرون أستاذًا

Hā’ulā’i wāћidun wa ξishruun ustādhan

These are twenty-one lady teachers

هَؤُلاءِ إحْدَى وَعِشْرونَ أستاذةً

Hā’ulā’i iћda wa ξishruun ustādhatan

I read twenty-five books

قَرَأْتُ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرين كِتابًا

Qara’tu khamsatan wa ξishruun kitāban

My friend read twenty-seven stories

دَرَسَ صَدِيقي سَبْعًا وَعِشْرين قِصَّةً

Darasa ŝadiiqi sabξan wa ξishriin qissatan

The price of my clothes is fifty-five pounds.

ثَوْبِي بِخَمْسَةٍ وَخَمسِينَ جُنَيْهًا

Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin ĵunaihan

I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.

كَتَبْتُ الدَّرْسَ في اثْنَتَينِ وَعِشرين وَرَقَةً

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnataini wa ξishriin waraqatan

I have twenty-two garments.

عِنْدِي اِثْنانِ وعِشرونَ جِلْبابًا

ξIndi ithnān wa ξishriina ĵilbāban

  • We notice here that the first number before (وَ) "wa" (and) is similar to the numbers 1 and 2, as we studied in the previous part. This means that numbers (واحد) "wāћid" (one) and (اثنان) "ithnān" (two) should be masculine or feminine according to the numbered noun. For example, the numbers in the following sentences are masculine because the numbered noun in each is masculine:

هَؤُلاءِ وَاحِدٌ وَعِشرون أستاذًا

Hā’ulā’i wāћidun wa ξishruuna ustadhan

These are twenty-one teachers.

عِنْدِي اثْنَانِ وَعِشْرُونَ جِلْبَابًا

ξindi ithnāni wa ξishruun ĵilbāban

I have twenty-two garments.

  • The numbers in the following sentences are feminine because the numbered noun in each is feminine:

هَؤُلاءِ إحْدَى وَعِشرون أستاذةً

Hā’ulā’i iћda wa ξishruuna ustadhatan

These are twenty-one lady teachers.

كَتَبْتُ الدَّرْسَ في اثْنَتَينِ وَعِشرين وَرَقَة

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnatayni wa ξishriin waraqatan

I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.

  • As a revision of lessons 19 and 20 - we have already learnt that the numbers from 3 to 9 should be opposite to the numbered noun, i.e. the first part should be masculine if the numbered noun is feminine. For example:

دَرَسَ صَدِيقي سَبْعًا وَعِشْرين قِصَّة

Darasa ŝadiiqi sabξan wa ξishriin qiŝŝatan

My friend studied twenty-seven stories.

  • Alternatively, the first part should be feminine if the numbered noun is masculine. For example:

ثَوْبِي بِخَمْسَةٍ وخَمسِينَ جُنَيْهًا

Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin ĵunayhan

(I bought) my garment (for) fifty-five pounds.

  • Note: the numbered noun after the decade numbers is always singular and in the accusative case (mansūb منصوب) (ending, originally, with the short fatћah, a). For example:

Male professor/teacher

أستاذا

Ustādhan

Female professor/teacher

أستاذةً

Ustādhatan

Book

كِتابًا

Kitāban

Story

قِصَّة

Qiŝŝatan

Pound

جُنَيْهًا

Ĵunayhan

Paper

وَرَقَة

Waraqatan

Long garment (for men and women)

جِلْبابًا

Ĵilbāban