Lesson 9 - الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ

Adjective Clause - الْمُرَكَّبُ الْوَصْفِيُّ

Continued

  • Let's Continue to learn Arabic through our free Arabic language course. This Arabic course contain Arabic grammar, Arabic syntax, Arabic morphology and more.
  • In this lesson we will learn the formation of a new Arabic clause called الْمُرَكَّبُ الْوَصْفِيُّ and "The Adjective Clause" in English, In-Shā’-Allâh (God-Willing).
  • In Arabic the adjective (a word describing the noun – e.g. red book, large house etc) is either called "Naξt" نَعْتٌ or "Aŝ-ŝiffah" الصِّفَةُ, and the noun it qualifies is called "Manξūt مَنْعُوتٌ or "Al-mawŝūf" الْمَوْصُوفُ and the clause thus formed is called either النَّعْتُ والْمَنْعُوتُ  or الْمُرَكَّبُ الوَصْفِيُّ . We will also learn the rules for the formation of the Adjective Clause.
  • Following are the rules pertained for the formation of the adjective clause:
    • In the English language, when we want to describe a noun we say for example, "Good boy" or "Lazy student" etc. - i.e., the adjective (description) comes before the noun. However in Arabic the word being used for the description (adjective) comes after the noun, e.g.  وَلَدٌ جَيِّدٌ or طَالِبٌ كَسْلانُ if translated linguistically means "Boy good" or "student lazy" but literally it means "Good boy" or "Lazy student".

Translation

Transliteration

الْمُرَكَّبُ الْوَصْفِيُّ

A dirty handkerchief

Mindīlun Wasikhun

مِنْدِيلٌ وَسِخٌ

An intelligent student

ŧâlibatun Dhakiyyatun

طَالِبَةٌ ذَكِيَّةٌ

    • The adjectives that express feelings normally end with (-an) and bear no Tanwīn on their ending letters e.g.:

English

Arabic

Thirsty

عَطْشَانُ

Hungry

جَوْعَانُ

Full

مَلآنُ

Angry

غَضْبَانُ

Happy

فَرْحَانُ

    • The adjective always follows the noun which it is describing in gender.  The adjective of a masculine noun is masculine and that of a feminine noun is feminine .e.g.: we sayوَلَدٌ صَغِيرٌ meaning “A young boy” and بِنْتٌ صَغِيرَةٌ meaning “A young girl”. 

Translation

Transliteration

Arabic

A famous engineer

Muhandisun Shahīrun

مُهَنْدِسٌ شَهِيرٌ

A tasty apple

Tuffāħatun Ladhīdhatun

تُفَّاحَةٌ لَذِيذَةٌ

    • Both the adjective and the noun are either definite or indefinite. Therefore if the noun is definite, then the adjective which is describing the noun will also be definite e.g.  الْمَكْتَبُ الْقَدِيمُ  meaning "The old table" and when the noun is indefinite the adjective will also be indefinite e.g. كِتَابٌ جَدِيدٌ meaning "A new book". 

Translation

Transliteration

Arabic

The big city

Almadīnatu Alkabīratu

الْمَدِينَةُ الْكَبِيرَةُ

A poor man

Raĵulun Faqīrun

رَجُلٌ فَقِيرٌ

Translation

Case

Arabic

This is a new teacher

Nominative

هَـٰذَا مُدَرِّسٌ جَدِيدٌ.

The pen is in the small bag

Genitive

الْقَلَمُ فِي الْحَقِيبَةِ الصَّغِيرَةِ.

The old book is at home

Nominative

الْكِتَابُ القَدِيمُ فِي الْبَيْتِ.

The water is in a broken glass

Genitive

الْمَاءُ فِي كَأْسٍ مَكْسُورٍ.

 

Picture

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

America is a big country

أَمْرِيكَا بَلَدٌ كَبِيرٌ.

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This is the new fan

هَـٰذِهِ الْمِرْوَحَةُ الْجَدِيدَةُ.

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Ahmad entered into a vast building

دَخَلَ أَحْمَدُ فِي مَنْزِلٍ كَبِيرٍ.

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A sparrow is a beautiful bird

العُصْفُورُ طَيْرٌ جَمِيلٌ.

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This is a crowded road

هَذَا طَرِيقٌ مُزْدَحِمٌ.

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The clean room

الْغُرْفَةُ النَّظِيفَةُ.

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