# Arabic Numbers 1 to 20

The Arabic number system is one of the oldest and most widely used number systems in the world. They are also one of the most intriguing and complex systems of numeration.

Actually, there are two systems of Arabic numerals, as follows:

- Eastern Arabic numerals (٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩), also called Hindu-Arabic numerals
- Western Arabic numerals (0123456789), also called Ghubār numerals, Western digits, Latin digits, or European digits.

Let’s learn Arabic numbers 1 to 20. This will help beginners in their learning Arabic journey.

## Counting in Arabic: 1 - 20

## Arabic Numbering Rules

### Numbers 1 and 2

The number one in Arabic وَاحِد and 2 in Arabic اثْنَان always come after the numbered noun and match the gender of it. Therefore, we have to say وَاحِد – اثْنَان (one – two) with the masculine and وَاحِدَة – اثْنَتَان with the feminine numbered noun. For example: رَجُلٌ وَاحِد (one man) امْرَأةٌ وَاحِدَة (one woman) رَجُلانِ اثْنَان (two men) امْرَأتَانِ اثْنَتَان (two women) You may note that the numbers one and two in Arabic fall after the numbered nouns. This happens only with those two numbers.

### Numbers 3-9

From number 3 in Arabic and onward, the number falls mainly before the numbered noun.

Example: Four in Arabic:

أَرْبَعَة رِجَال(Four men)

You may also note that the numbered noun starts to be in plural (in the genitive case), but this occurs only

from 3 to ten. After ten onward, the numbered noun should be singular.

Example: 5 in Arabic:

خَمْس زَوْجَات(Five wives)

The number from 3 to 10 should mismatch the gender of the numbered noun.

Example: number 7 in Arabic:

سَبْعَة مُدَرِّسِين(Seven male teachers)

سَبْع مُدَرِّسَات(Seven female teachers).

### Number 10

Rules of number 10 in Arabic:

- It could be used separately and compounded with one of the 1-9 numbers.
- The separate form has to mismatch the gender of the numbered noun.
- The ش in the word (عشرة ten) has to be signed with Fathah (a) before the masculine numbered noun, while it has to be signed with Sukūn (pause) before the feminine numbered noun.

### Numbers 11 and 12

Rules of 11 and 12 in Arabic:

- Both parts of each of these compound numbers have to match the gender of the numbered noun. Numbered noun should be singular accusative.
- Example: 11 in Arabic:
- أحَدَ عَشَرَ طَالِبةً (eleven female student).
- Both parts should be indeclinable on Fathah (a) except the part of (اثنا) which has to be changeable as dual.

### Number 13 to 19

Rules of numbers 13 to 19:

- The first part of the compound has to mismatch the gender of the numbered noun, while the second part matches it.
- Numbered nouns should be singular in the accusative case.
- Example: 15 in Arabic:
- خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ طَالِبًا (fifteen male student)
- خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ طَالِبةً (fifteen female student).
- Both parts should be indeclinable on Fathah (a), while the numbered noun has to be singularly accusative.

## Basics of Arabic Numerals

The Arabic number system is a base 10 system (10 digits ٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩ ).

Each symbol in the system stands for a number that is a multiple of 10. For example, the symbol “1” stands for 10, “2” stands for 20, and so on.

Numerals (digits) are written from left to right, while letters are written from right to left.

Highest significant digit (the digit with the highest value) comes first on the left and the least significant digit comes after.

The Arabic numbers in letters after 20 come with the coordinating article (و meaning “and”) and they don’t have fixed order.

Example: 1967 ألف وتسعمئة وسبعة وستون .

### Scenario 1 (With Taxi Driver)

Consider the usage of the Arabic numbers:

Q: How far is the Airport?

كم يبعد المطار؟A: 5 km

خمسة كيلومترات – ٥ كيلومتراتpaperQ: How much will you charge for the airport?

A: 9 riyals

تسعة ريالات – ٩ ريالات### Scenario 2 (At the Bank)

Consider the usage of the Arabic numbers:

- مَرْحَبًا ، أُرِيدُ إِيدَاعَ أَمْوالٍ فِي حِسَابِي. Hi, I want to deposit money into my account.
- كَمْ تُرِيدُ أَنْ تُودِع؟How much would you like to deposit?
- 5000 خَمْسَةَ آلَاف

### Scenario 3 (Buying Fruit)

Consider numbers counting in Arabic:

- كَمْ تُفَّاحًا تُرِيدُ شِرَاءَه؟ How many apples do you want to buy?
- كِيلُوجِرَامًا وَحِدًا – ١ كيلوجرام 1 kg
- كَمِ السِّعْر؟ What is the price?
- عِشْرُونَ رِيَالًا – ٢٠ ريالا 20 riyals

### Practicing Arabic Numerals

The best way to learn Arabic numerals is to memorize them.

You can do it by writing out the numbers on a piece of paper and saying them out loud.

It’s helpful to practice writing the numbers in order.

Try practicing Arabic counting by adding and/or subtracting numbers using the place value system.

Here are some practice mathematical questions:

1+1 = 2 وَاحِد زَائِد وَاحِد يُسَاوِي اثْنَيْن

3 – 1 = 2 ثَلَاثَة نَاقِص وَاحِد يُسَاوِي اثْنَيْن

2 × 1 = 2 اثْنَيْن في وَاحِد يُسَاوِي اثْنَيْن

2 ÷ 1 = 2 اثْنَيْن على وَاحِد يُسَاوِي اثْنَيْن

20% عِشْرُونَ بِالْمِائة

Tracing worksheet - Optional added value to be created by Madinah Team

## History and Origins of Arabic Numbers

What are Arabic numerals?

They are the written digits that have been developed since the third century BC by Arabs and Indians. Indian numerals were developed by the Hindu mathematicians of the Gupta Empire. They were brought to Arabs by trade and conquest. Those numerals were developed and adopted by Persian traders and by the Islamic Caliphate which extended in Asia, North Africa and the south western Spanish part of Europe.

There were two written systems to write numbers in Arabic; eastern and western Arabic numerals.

The Western one was adopted by Europe in the 10th century and became the standard number system in Europe in the 15th century replacing the old Roman complicated system (I, II, III, IV, etc.).

### Who Invented Arabic Numerals?

It’s quite difficult to know who first invented and developed the Arabic numerals used today.

The Hindu-Arabic numerals (٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩) and Western Arabic numerals (0123456789) are both Arabic versions developed from Indian numerals originated in India in the 6th or 7th century. They represent numbers in the decimal number system that were introduced to Europe through the writings of Arab mathematicians, especially Al-Khwarizmi (780–850 AD) and Al-Kindi (801–873 AD).

## Benefits Learning Arabic Numbers

It’s quite difficult to know who first invented and developed the Arabic numerals used today.

The Hindu-Arabic numerals (٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩) and Western Arabic numerals (0123456789) are both Arabic versions developed from Indian numerals originated in India in the 6th or 7th century. They represent numbers in the decimal number system that were introduced to Europe through the writings of Arab mathematicians, especially Al-Khwarizmi (780–850 AD) and Al-Kindi (801–873 AD).

## Benefits Learning Arabic Numbers

Learning Arabic numerals or Arabic digits can be a very beneficial skill, for the following:

- If you are Muslim, this will help you a lot to understand the Quran and religion.
- It can help you if you are traveling to an Arabic speaking country.
- Connect to millions of people all over the world. And who knows, if you met your future partner.
- It can help to get a better job if you're applying in Arabic speaking country or working as a translator.
- To understand Islam (world's second largest religion).

Click here for a quick guide on how to learn Arabic.

### Uses of Arabic Numbers in Technology

The Arabic number system is a complex and fascinating system of numeration. This number system applies the so-called (PVS) Place Value System. For example 0 has no value if it comes alone or before a digit, while it means a great deal if comes after.

If you are an Arabic learner, it’s very important to know numbers in Arabic. This can be done by studying the history of the number system, learning the symbols and the place value system, and practicing adding and subtracting numbers.

Studying the Arabic system can also help you to better understand other languages and computer programming languages.

## Conclusion

Arabic numbers have two forms:

- Letters from: وَاحِد – اثْنَان ,etc.
- Numeral form: and this latter consists of two written digital systems (eastern Arabic numerals٠١٢٣٤٥٦٧٨٩ ) and (western Arabic numerals 0123456789). Those numeral systems originated and developed from Indians, adopted by Muslim scholars, and then imported to Europe.

Please be patient in your Arabic language journey. Keep learning, reading, writing and practicing.

Also, keep following Madinah Arabic to improve your Arabic!

Don't forget to check out our free course and free lesson on numbers in Arabic.